The God of the living (Lk 20:38-20:38)

“Now God is

Not a God

Of the dead,

But of the living.

To him,

All of them

Are alive.”

 

Θεὸς δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν νεκρῶν ἀλλὰ ζώντων· πάντες γὰρ αὐτῷ ζῶσιν

 

Luke concluded with Jesus saying that God was not a God of the dead (Θεὸς δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν νεκρῶν), but of the living (ἀλλὰ ζώντων).  All of them were alive to him (πάντες γὰρ αὐτῷ ζῶσιν).  Jesus continued his explanation that can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:32, and Mark, chapter 12:27.  Mark said that Jesus ended by saying that Yahweh, the Father, was not the God of the dead (οὐκ ἔστιν Θεὸς νεκρῶν) but the God of the living (ἀλλὰ ζώντων).  He insisted that the Sadducees were very wrong, mistaken, or incorrect (πολὺ πλανᾶσθε).  Matthew indicated that Jesus ended by saying that Yahweh, the Father, was the God of the living (ἀλλὰ ζώντων), not the dead (οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ Θεὸς νεκρῶν).  Do you believe in a living God?

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God and Moses (Lk 20:37-20:37)

“The dead are raised.

Moses showed this

In the story

About the bush.

There

He speaks

Of the Lord as

The God of Abraham,

The God of Isaac,

And the God of Jacob.”

 

ὅτι δὲ ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροὶ, καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐμήνυσεν ἐπὶ τῆς Βάτου, ὡς λέγει Κύριον τὸν Θεὸν Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Θεὸν Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Θεὸν Ἰακώβ

 

Luke indicated that Jesus justified the resurrection, that the dead are raised up (ὅτι δὲ ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροὶ).  Jesus used the example of Moses at the thorn bush (καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐμήνυσεν ἐπὶ τῆς Βάτου), when he called Yahweh or the Lord (ὡς λέγει Κύριον) the God of Abraham (τὸν Θεὸν Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸν Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸν Ἰακώβ).  Jesus continued with this same explanation that can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:31-32, and Mark, chapter 12:26.  They all refer to Moses at the burning bush in Exodus, chapter 3:6, a mysterious theophany, that is implied without being explicitly mentioned here.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that the dead will rise up (περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται).  Jesus then reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct book of Moses (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωϋσέως).  Jesus then referenced this saying of Yahweh to Moses at the bush (ἐπὶ τοῦ Βάτου).  Yahweh God spoke to Moses saying (πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ λέγων) that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ).  Matthew indicated that Jesus reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct sayings of God (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑμῖν ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ λέγοντος), concerning the resurrection of the dead (περὶ δὲ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῶν νεκρῶν).  He did not say “the correct book” as in Mark.  He then referenced the saying of Yahweh to Moses at the burning bush, that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ ὁ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ ὁ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ).  Do you believe in your resurrection in the afterlife?

Children of God (Lk 20:36-20:36)

“Indeed,

They cannot die

Anymore,

Because they are

Like angels.

They are children

Of God,

Being children

Of the resurrection.”

 

οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀποθανεῖν ἔτι δύνανται, ἰσάγγελοι γάρ εἰσιν, καὶ υἱοί εἰσιν Θεοῦ τῆς ἀναστάσεως υἱοὶ ὄντες.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus gave an explanation.  He said that in the resurrection they would not be able to die anymore or be mortal (οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀποθανεῖν ἔτι δύνανται), because they would be like angels (ἰσάγγελοι γάρ εἰσιν).  Once again, this is unique usage of the word ἰσάγγελοι in the Greek biblical literature that means equal to angels or like the angels.  They would be children or sons of God (καὶ υἱοί εἰσιν Θεοῦ), because they were children or sons of the resurrection (τῆς ἀναστάσεως υἱοὶ ὄντες).  This is quite a profound theological statement.  The resurrected humans would be like angels so that marriage and procreation would be out of the question.  Both Matthew, chapter 22:30, with Mark, chapter 12:25, almost word for word, have simpler statements about humans being angels in heaven.  Mark simply said that they would all be like angels in heaven (ἀλλ’ εἰσὶν ὡς ἄγγελοι ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς).  Matthew simply said they would all be like angels in heaven (ὡς ἄγγελοι ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ εἰσιν).  Thus, these humans would take on an angelic way of life, with no reason to procreate in marriage.  Would you like a sexless angelic heaven?

No marriage in the resurrection (Lk 20:35-20:35)

“But those who are

Considered worthy

Of a place

In that age,

In the resurrection

From the dead,

Neither marry

Nor are given in marriage.”

 

οἱ δὲ καταξιωθέντες τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῆς ἐκ νεκρῶν οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται·

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that those who were considered worthy of a place in that age (οἱ δὲ καταξιωθέντες τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν) of the resurrection from the dead (καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῆς ἐκ νεκρῶν) would neither marry (οὔτε γαμοῦσιν) or be given in marriage (οὔτε γαμίζονται).  Jesus’ explanation in Matthew, chapter 22:30, is almost word for word with Mark, chapter 12:25.  Mark said that in the afterlife resurrection, when the dead rise (ὅταν γὰρ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῶσιν), there will be no marriage or giving in marriage (οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται).  Matthew said basically the same.  In the afterlife of the resurrection (ἐν γὰρ τῇ ἀναστάσει), there will be no marriage or giving in marriage (οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται).  There will be no marriages in the afterlife.  Are you disappointed that there are no marriages in the resurrected afterlife?

The parable was aimed at the chief priests and the Scribes (Lk 20:19-20:19)

“The Scribes

And the chief priests

Realized

That he had told

This parable

Against them.”

 

ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην.

 

Luke said that the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the chief priests (καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς) realized or perceived (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ) that he had told this parable against them (ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην).  There was something similar in Matthew chapter 21:45, and Mark, chapter 12:12.  Mark said that the unnamed “they” realized or knew that Jesus had told this parable against them (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν).  They were the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard.  The landowner was God the Father.  The slaves were the Israelite prophets, while Jesus was the Son of the Father.  In Matthew, the chief priests and the Pharisees (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) did not have to wait for an explanation of this parable about the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard.  They knew or realized, on hearing (Καὶ ἀκούσαντες) this parable story (τὰς παραβολὰς αὐτοῦ), that these evil tenants that Jesus was talking about was them (ἔγνωσαν ὅτι περὶ αὐτῶν λέγει).  Thus, the Jerusalem Jewish religious leaders understood that this parable was clearly aimed at them.  Have you ever realized that people were talking about you?

Joy over one repentant sinner (Lk 15:10-15:10)

“Just so,

I tell you!

There is joy

In the presence

Of the angels of God

Over one sinner

Who repents.”

 

οὕτως, λέγω ὑμῖν, γίνεται χαρὰ ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀγγέλων τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι.

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus concluded this short parable story about the lost drachma coin.  Jesus said with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that there would be more joy in the presence of the angels of God (οὕτως, …γίνεται χαρὰ ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀγγέλων τοῦ Θεοῦ) over one sinner who repents (ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι).  This is another explanation and repetition of the lost sheep story.  Luke had Jesus there conclude this parable about the lost sheep. with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that there would be more joy in heaven (ὅτι οὕτως χαρὰ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἔσται) over one repentant sinner (ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι) than over the ninety-nine righteous persons (ἢ ἐπὶ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα δικαίοις) who do not need repentance (οἵτινες οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν μετανοίας).  The phraseology is shorter here.  Certainly, there will be great rejoicing over one sinner who repents, just like finding the lost sheep and the lost drachma.  Have you ever rejoiced over a repentant sinner?

Joy over a repentant sinner (Lk 15:7-15:7)

“Just so,

I tell you!

There will be more joy

In heaven

Over one sinner

Who repents

Than over ninety-nine

Righteous persons

Who need no repentance.”

 

λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὕτως χαρὰ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἔσται ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι ἢ ἐπὶ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα δικαίοις οἵτινες οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν μετανοίας.

 

Luke had Jesus conclude this parable about the lost sheep.  Jesus said with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that there would be more joy in heaven (ὅτι οὕτως χαρὰ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἔσται) over one repentant sinner (ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι) than over the 99 righteous people (ἢ ἐπὶ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα δικαίοις) who do not need repentance (οἵτινες οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν μετανοίας).  This explanation of the lost sheep parable can also be found in Matthew, chapter 18:14, with some minor changes, indicating a Q source.  Luke compared this lost sheep to a repentant sinner.  In Matthew, Jesus explained that it was not the will of his heavenly Father (οὕτως οὐκ ἔστιν θέλημα ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ Πατρὸς ὑμῶν τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς) that these little ones should be lost or perish (ἵνα ἀπόληται ἓν τῶν μικρῶν τούτων).  The heavenly Father did not want to lose anyone, just like the good shepherd did not want to lose any one of his wandering sheep.  Have you ever lost someone close to you?