Luke uniquely indicated that when this dinner party with the Pharisees was over, Jesus and the others went outside (Κἀκεῖθεν ἐξελθόντος αὐτοῦ). Then the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the Pharisees (καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) began (ἤρξαντο) to be very hostile or urgently press Jesus (δεινῶς ἐνέχειν). They wanted to cross examine him (καὶ ἀποστοματίζειν αὐτὸν) about many things (περὶ πλειόνων). This is the only time that the word ἀποστοματίζειν is used in all the Scripture literature, meaning something like drawing out by questioning. This was the first mention of the Scribes in this section. You can see that after all these diatribes against the Pharisees and the Mosaic lawyers, they may have had some questions for Jesus. He would have to do some explaining to them about what he meant. This was not a happy ending to a dinner party. Have you ever been to a dinner party that ended badly?
Luke said that Jesus told the apostles and disciples (εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς) to give this crowd something to eat (Δότε αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν ὑμεῖς.). However, they responded (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν) that they only had (Οὐκ εἰσὶν ἡμῖν πλεῖον) 5 loaves (ἢ ἄρτοι πέντε) and 2 fish (καὶ ἰχθύες δύο). Otherwise, they would have to go to buy (εἰ μήτι πορευθέντες ἡμεῖς ἀγοράσωμεν) some food (βρώματα) for all these people (εἰς πάντα τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον). The fact that Jesus wanted to feed everyone was recorded in all four gospels, Matthew, chapter 14:16, Mark, chapter 6:37, and John, chapter 6:5-7, plus here in Luke. Despite the fact that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home, Jesus wanted to feed them there. Mark indicated that Jesus answered his disciples, telling them to give the people something to eat. Only Mark has this response of the disciples explaining the problem of buying food. The disciples said to Jesus if they were to go to buy food, that it would cost about 200 denarii to buy enough bread for all these people to eat. A denarius was worth one day’s pay, so that that 200 denarii would be over a half year’s pay, a large amount of money. The disciples thought that Jesus wanted them to buy some bread for the crowd. In John, there was a conversation between Jesus and Philip about this. Mark indicated that Jesus told his disciples to go and see how many loaves of bread they had. Once the apostles found out, they said to Jesus that they only had 5 loaves of bread and 2 fish. Matthew said that despite the fact that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home, Jesus wanted to feed them there. Jesus said to his disciples that the crowds did need not to go away, because Jesus and his disciples were going to give them something to eat. The disciples replied to Jesus that they had practically no food to eat, only 5 loaves of bread and 2 fish. How much food do you need to eat well?
The four gospel stories show what happened to Jesus after he had been baptized. Matthew, chapter 3:16, and Mark, chapter 1:10, are almost the same as here. John, chapter 1:32, had John the Baptist explaining what was happening, but there was no mention of heaven opening or Jesus at prayer. Luke said that when Jesus had been baptized (καὶ Ἰησοῦ βαπτισθέντος), just as he was coming up out of the water, he was praying (καὶ προσευχομένου). Heaven was opened (ἀνεῳχθῆναι τὸν οὐρανὸν). There is no mention of Jesus seeing the heavens open as Mark indicated. The idea of heaven opening up or breaking open was also found among the major Israelite prophets Isaiah, chapter 63:19, and Ezekiel, chapter 1:1. All this happened as Jesus came up from the water, not during the baptism itself. The idea of Jesus praying was unique to Luke and one of his favorite themes. However, Luke did not have a description of John the Baptist, nor any discussion of whether John should baptize Jesus, as in Mark and Matthew.
There is nothing like this elsewhere, because Mark was explaining this Jewish practice to his gentile Christian readers. Mark said that the Pharisees (οἱ γὰρ Φαρισαῖοι) and all the Jews (καὶ πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι) did not eat. unless they had washed their hands (μὴ πυγμῇ νίψωνται τὰς χεῖρας οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν). Not washing hands was considered to be not upholding or a violation against the Jewish tradition of the elders or priests (κρατοῦντες τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων). The importance of this tradition was clearly seen in Matthew, chapter 15:2, in this more Jewish Christian writing. It is not clear that all Jews followed this tradition, but the Pharisees certainly did. Originally, this practice of washing hands before eating was what the priestly Levites did in the Temple to practice ritual purity as indicated in Exodus, chapter 30:17-21. Yahweh had told Moses that there should be a bronze basin with a bronze stand for washing. Thus, Aaron and his sons should wash their hands and feet when they went into the meeting tent or the altar. The penalty for not washing your hands and feet was death under this perpetual ordinance. However, the Pharisaic oral tradition, or the tradition of the elders, had extended this practice to individual and their own homes.
Both Mark, chapter 11:4-7, and Luke, chapter 19:32-35, are similar but more elaborate in explaining how the two disciples got the donkey. The two disciples went out (πορευθέντες δὲ οἱ μαθηταὶ). They did just as Jesus had directed or commanded them to do (καὶ ποιήσαντες καθὼς συνέταξεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς). They brought the donkey and the colt back (ἤγαγον τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον) to Jesus. Then they put their outer garments or coats on them (καὶ ἐπέθηκαν ἐπ’ αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια). Then Jesus sat on them (καὶ ἐπεκάθισεν ἐπάνω αὐτῶν). This is where the two animals concept falls apart since Jesus could not sit on two animals at the same time. Thus, the Mark and Luke stories and the prophet Zechariah are right about one young colt donkey, not a donkey and a colt.
Here is the first explicit mention of an afterlife resurrection in the Biblical writings. Once again, Gabriel was explaining to Daniel what the end times would be like. Notice that not all people would raise from the dead, only many. Some will awake to an everlasting life, while others will awaken to shame and everlasting contempt. The wise ones and the righteous ones would shine like the brightness of the sky and the stars, forever and ever. Perhaps, this is an indication of a glorified shinny body.
Ezekiel continued in the first person singular explaining what his vision looked like. He said that this vision was like a great cloud with a stormy wind that came from the north. Generally powerful but bad things came from the north. This cloud, however, was very bright and seemed to have fire flashes continually around it. In the middle of this cloud there was something like a glowing amber color. Thus this vision of Ezekiel was very stormy, colorful, and powerful.
Isaiah is clear about explaining this song of the vineyard. This vineyard is the house of Israel, and in particular the people of Judah. Yahweh was expecting justice and righteousness from his pleasant planting in the vineyard. However, all he saw and heard was bloodshed and crying. These wild grapes were very disconcerting.
In the Bible of Jerusalem this is the end of chapter 40 and not the beginning of chapter 41. However, the text is exactly the same so I am using the Oxford Bible numbering until the end of chapter 41, where the 2 works once again coincide. The Leviathan was the sea monster personified. If anything it might have been a large crocodile or a water dragon of some kind. Later in medieval Christianity, the Leviathan was considered to be the devil in popular works. For philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) the Leviathan was a big government that came from a social contract. You obviously could not catch this monster with a fish hook, a cord, or a rope. This biblical author spends a long time explaining the Leviathan in this part of Yahweh’s speech.