Luke said that that as these two disciples were untying the young colt (λυόντων δὲ αὐτῶν τὸν πῶλον), its owners or masters asked them (εἶπαν οἱ κύριοι αὐτοῦ πρὸς αὐτούς) why were they untying this colt (Τί λύετε τὸν πῶλον)? This is similar to Mark, chapter 11:5, since Matthew had nothing about this. Mark said that some of the bystanders (καί τινες τῶν ἐκεῖ ἑστηκότων), not the owners, spoke to Jesus’ two unnamed disciples (ἔλεγον αὐτοῖς). They asked them what they were doing (Τί ποιεῖτε)? Why were they untying the colt (λύοντες τὸν πῶλον)? Jesus had told them to expect these kinds of questions. Would you question someone who was taking your animal?
Luke indicated that that Jesus said to the disciples (Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τοὺς μαθητάς) that the days were coming (Ἐλεύσονται ἡμέραι) when they would long to see (ὅτε ἐπιθυμήσετε…ἰδεῖν) one of the days of the Son of Man (μίαν τῶν ἡμερῶν τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου). However, they would not experience it (καὶ οὐκ ὄψεσθε). This hints at something that Mark, chapter 13:19, had Jesus say that there would be rough period before the end times arrived. His wording had a hint of Daniel, chapter 12:1 and Joel, chapter 2:2, who talked about the Day of Yahweh. Mark indicated that Jesus said that at the end times that there would be such suffering or tribulation (ἐκεῖναι θλῖψις) that no one had ever seen anything like it since the beginning of the world until now (οἵα οὐ γέγονεν τοιαύτη ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς κτίσεως ἣν ἔκτισεν ὁ Θεὸς ἕως τοῦ νῦν). In fact, there never will be any kind of suffering like this at any time (καὶ οὐ μὴ γένηται). This was going to be bad, nothing like it had ever happened before. This would be the unique end times. Luke was not as foreboding here. What do you expect the end times to be like?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the master or lord of this slave would come (ἥξει ὁ κύριος τοῦ δούλου ἐκείνου) on a day (ἐν ἡμέρᾳ) when this slave did not expect him (ᾗ οὐ προσδοκᾷ), and at an unknown hour (καὶ ἐν ὥρᾳ ᾗ οὐ γινώσκει). The lord would severely beat him (καὶ διχοτομήσει αὐτὸν) and put him with the unfaithful slaves (καὶ τὸ μέρος αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῶν ἀπίστων θήσει). This parable about the wicked slave is similar to Matthew, chapter 24:50-51, perhaps indicating a Q source. Matthew had Jesus say that the master of this slave came on a day when he was not expecting him, at an unknown hour (ἥξει ὁ κύριος τοῦ δούλου ἐκείνου ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ᾗ οὐ προσδοκᾷ καὶ ἐν ὥρᾳ ᾗ οὐ γινώσκει). This master would beat him severely (καὶ διχοτομήσει αὐτὸν) and put him with the hypocrites (καὶ τὸ μέρος αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῶν ὑποκριτῶν θήσει), where there would be weeping (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς) and gnashing of teeth (καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων). The non-vigilant slave would suffer disaster, not like the good slave. Matthew added the elements about gnashing of teeth and mourning with weeping. Would you be the good slave or the bad slave?
Luke uniquely had this parable story about waking up a friend at midnight. The answer of this friend, who was just woken up in the middle of the night, was what you might expect. He responded from within his house (κἀκεῖνος ἔσωθεν ἀποκριθεὶς εἴπῃ). He told his friend not to bother or trouble him (Μή μοι κόπους πάρεχε). His door has already been locked (ἤδη ἡ θύρα κέκλεισται). His children (καὶ τὰ παιδία μου), as well as himself (μετ’ ἐμοῦ), were already in bed (εἰς τὴν κοίτην εἰσίν). He was not able to get up (οὐ δύναμαι ἀναστὰς) and give him anything (δοῦναί σοι). What did he expect? Just go away! This neighbor friend was quite direct, nothing doing. Just go home and leave him alone. He had settled down for the night. Maybe they could talk tomorrow. Has anybody ever woken you up at midnight?
Luke uniquely said that this young dead man sat up (καὶ ἀνεκάθισεν ὁ νεκρὸς) and began to speak (καὶ ἤρξατο λαλεῖν). Then Jesus gave him to his mother (καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ). The actual raising from the dead meant that this formerly dead youth sat up and began to speak. Jesus then gave him to his mother in a very simple gesture. The miracle of raising a dead man had happened without any kind of physical gestures. Do you expect to rise after your death?
Matthew, chapter 5:44 was more forceful when Jesus said that they were to love their enemies (ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν) and even pray for those who were persecuting them. Here Luke indicated that Jesus said that they were to love their enemies (πλὴν ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν), as in Matthew. However, they were to do good (καὶ ἀγαθοποιεῖτε). They were expected to lend to others (καὶ δανίζετε), expecting nothing in return (μηδὲν ἀπελπίζοντες). This was based on Exodus, chapter 22:25 that if they lent money, they should not charge interest to the poor. Leviticus, chapter 25:27, said that if any of their relatives fall into difficulties and become dependent on them, they should support them as though they were resident aliens. They were not to take interest or profit from them while they are living and eating in their house. Yahweh would provide. Their reward would be great (καὶ ἔσται ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολύς) because they would be children of the Most-High God (καὶ ἔσεσθε υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου). Have you ever lent money to relatives?
Luke made a comment that will be often repeated here and in all the other gospel stories about how people were amazed or marveled at Jesus. He said that everyone, especially these religious teachers in Jerusalem, who heard this 12-year-old Jesus was amazed or astonished (ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες οἱ ἀκούοντες αὐτοῦ) at his understanding or intellect (ἐπὶ τῇ συνέσει) and his answers (καὶ ταῖς ἀποκρίσεσιν αὐτοῦ). He was a bright kid for his age. What else would you expect from Jesus? The idea of a brilliant youth was common among all ancient heroes. However, the gospel writers were restrained in this area, since this is the only canonical story or episode about the young Jesus.
This is similar to Luke, chapter 19:33. Mark said that some of the bystanders (καί τινες τῶν ἐκεῖ ἑστηκότων) spoke to Jesus’ 2 unnamed disciples (ἔλεγον αὐτοῖς). They asked them what they were doing (Τί ποιεῖτε)? Why were they untying the colt (λύοντες τὸν πῶλον)? Jesus had told them to expect these kinds of questions.
Once again, this unique saying of Mark had Jesus order or instruct this man and the crowd with him (καὶ διεστείλατο αὐτοῖς) not to tell anyone about it (ἵνα μηδενὶ λέγωσιν). However, the more he ordered or instructed them to be quiet (ὅσον δὲ αὐτοῖς διεστέλλετο,), the more zealously they proclaimed it (αὐτοὶ μᾶλλον περισσότερον ἐκήρυσσον). This was the strange Messianic secret that no one could keep secret. The ironic twist was that the crowds saw what was happening, yet Jesus was trying not to let people tell others. On the other hand, he would send his apostles out to preach. What did he expect to happen?
This parable about the unforgiving servant slave is unique to Matthew. Jesus then gave an explanation of this parable, probably for his disciples. His heavenly Father, the lord or king, was going to do the same to every one of them (Οὕτως καὶ ὁ Πατήρ μου ὁ οὐράνιος ποιήσει ὑμῖν) who did not forgive their brother (ἐὰν μὴ ἀφῆτε ἕκαστος τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ) from their heart (ἀπὸ τῶν καρδιῶν ὑμῶν). If you do not truly forgive others, do not expect forgiveness for yourself.