The time of trial (Lk 11:4-11:4)

“Do not bring us

To the time

Of trial!”

 

καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the Father should not lead us or bring us (καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς) to the time of trial, probation, testing, or temptation (εἰς πειρασμόν).  Once again there is a later Byzantine text that says that we should be delivered from the evil one.  Matthew, chapter 6:12-13 was slightly different.  Jesus said that we should ask the Father not to lead us into temptation or be tested in a trial (καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν).  Finally, we should ask the Father to rescue or deliver us from painful evil or the evil one (ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ).  Luke simply talked about a time of trial, or a testing time.  There was nothing about being delivered from evil in Luke, except in the later Byzantine text.  Luke did not have the other later addition about the kingdom and glory of God, even in a later Byzantine text.  Do you like to be tested?

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The explanation of the seeds on the path (Mk 4:15-4:15)

“These are the seeds

On the path.

The word was sown.

When they hear,

Satan immediately comes.

He takes away

The word

That was sown

In them.”

 

οὗτοι δέ εἰσιν οἱ παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ὅπου σπείρεται ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὅταν ἀκούσωσιν εὐθὺς ἔρχεται ὁ Σατανᾶς καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον τὸν ἐσπαρμένον εἰς αὐτούς.

 

This is the explanation about the seeds on the path that can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels.  Matthew, chapter 13:19, said that the birds were the evil one.  Luke, chapter 8:12, mentions that the birds were the devil, not Satan.  Mark indicated that Jesus explained that the seeds on the path or the road (οὗτοι δέ εἰσιν οἱ παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν) were where the word was sown (ὅπου σπείρεται ὁ λόγος).  They heard the word (καὶ ὅταν ἀκούσωσιν), but immediately Satan came (ἔρχεται ὁ Σατανᾶς), in the form of the birds.  Satan or the birds took away the sown seeds or the word that had been sown in them (καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον τὸν ἐσπαρμένον εἰς αὐτούς).  Jesus said that these seeds were the holy words.  The birds were the evil Satan that came and devoured them, because they did not understand the words within them.  Listening to the word was not enough.  There had to be good circumstances or pre-depositions to hearing and understanding for the word or the seeds to be effective.

Jesus explains the enemy (Mt 13:39-13:39)

“The enemy

Who sowed the weeds is

The devil.

The harvest is

The end of the age.

The reapers

Are angels.”

 

ὁ δὲ ἐχθρὸς ὁ σπείρας αὐτά ἐστιν ὁ διάβολος· ὁ δὲ θερισμὸς συντέλεια αἰῶνός ἐστιν, οἱ δὲ θερισταὶ ἄγγελοί εἰσιν.

 

Only Matthew has this explanation about the parable of the weeds that was earlier in this chapter, 13:24-30.  Jesus, via Matthew, explained about the enemy and the harvest.  The enemy who sowed the weeds was the devil (ὁ δὲ ἐχθρὸς ὁ σπείρας αὐτά ἐστιν ὁ διάβολος).  The enemy was no longer nameless, he was the devil himself (ὁ διάβολος), not merely an evil one.  The harvest will be at the end times (ὁ δὲ θερισμὸς συντέλεια αἰῶνός ἐστιν).  The harvest reapers will be the angels (οἱ δὲ θερισταὶ ἄγγελοί εἰσιν).  The devil has sown the weeds, but the angels will be the harvesters at the end times.

The weeds among the wheat (Mt 13:25-13:26)

“But while everyone was asleep,

An enemy came.

He sowed weeds

Among the wheat.

Then he went away.

Thus,

When the plants came up,

They bore grain.

Then the weeds appeared as well.”

 

ἐν δὲ τῷ καθεύδειν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἦλθεν αὐτοῦ ὁ ἐχθρὸς καὶ ἐπέσπειρεν ζιζάνια ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ σίτου καὶ ἀπῆλθεν.

ὅτε δὲ ἐβλάστησεν ὁ χόρτος καὶ καρπὸν ἐποίησεν, τότε ἐφάνη καὶ τὰ ζιζάνια.

 

There is no equivalent to this parable in the other synoptic gospels.   Only Matthew has this parable about the good seed and the weeds.  As with all good stories, a protagonist unnamed enemy appeared, who might have been the evil one or the devil but is only called an enemy here.  While everyone was asleep (ἐν δὲ τῷ καθεύδειν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους), their unnamed enemy came and went away (ἦλθεν αὐτοῦ ὁ ἐχθρὸς… καὶ ἀπῆλθεν).  However, this enemy “ἐχθρὸς” sowed weeds among and in the middle of the good wheat seeds (καὶ ἐπέσπειρεν ζιζάνια ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ σίτου).  When the wheat plants sprouted (ὅτε δὲ ἐβλάστησεν ὁ χόρτος) and produced grain (καὶ καρπὸν ἐποίησεν), the weeds appeared as well (τότε ἐφάνη καὶ τὰ ζιζάνια).  Thus, the wheat and the weeds grew together.

Explanation about the seeds on the path (Mt 13:18-13:19)

“Hear then the parable

Of the sower!

When anyone hears

The word of the kingdom

And does not understand it,

The evil one comes.

He snatches away

What is sown in the heart.

This is what was sown

On the path.”

 

Ὑμεῖς οὖν ἀκούσατε τὴν παραβολὴν τοῦ σπείραντος.

Παντὸς ἀκούοντος τὸν λόγον τῆς βασιλείας καὶ μὴ συνιέντος, ἔρχεται ὁ πονηρὸς καὶ ἁρπάζει τὸ ἐσπαρμένον ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ· οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν σπαρείς.

 

This is the explanation about the sower parable, especially the seeds on the path that can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Mark, chapter 4:13-15, and Luke, chapter 8:11-12, with Matthew closer to Mark.  Jesus had asked them to hear this parable about the sower (Ὑμεῖς οὖν ἀκούσατε τὴν παραβολὴν τοῦ σπείραντος).  He then explained that this was all about hearing the word of the kingdom (Παντὸς ἀκούοντος τὸν λόγον τῆς βασιλείας).  However, they did not understand what they heard (καὶ μὴ συνιέντος).  Thus, the evil one would come (ἔρχεται ὁ πονηρὸς) and seize or snatch away what had been sown in their hearts (καὶ ἁρπάζει τὸ ἐσπαρμένον ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ).  Jesus said that this is the explanation about the seeds that had been thrown on the path or road (οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν σπαρείς).  These seeds were the words of the kingdom.  The birds were the evil ones that came and devoured them, because they did not understand the words of the kingdom.  Listening to the word was not enough.  There had to be good circumstances or pre-depositions to hearing and understanding for the word or the seed to be effective.