The fourth kingdom (Dan 7:23-7:23)

“This is what

He said.

‘As for the fourth beast,

There shall be

A fourth kingdom

On earth.

It shall be different

From all the other kingdoms.

It shall devour

The whole earth.

It shall trample it down.

It shall break it

To pieces.’”

It is not clear who the “he” speaking here is. It could be the Ancient One or that attendant who was standing around, but it is not Daniel. The 4th beast would have a kingdom, unlike any other kingdom. This kingdom would devour the whole earth, trample it down, and finally break it into pieces. This could be a reference to Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE) and the large Greek kingdom that he established.

Follow the law (Dan 6:15-6:15)

“Then the conspirators

Came to the king.

They said to him.

‘Know!

O king!

That it is a law

Of the Medes,

Of the Persians,

That no interdict

Or ordinance

That the king establishes

Can be changed.’”

The Babylonian conspirators went to the king. They insisted that according to the law of Medes and Persia, no interdict or ordinance could be changed, once it was established. This is somewhat reminiscent of Esther, chapters 3-4, about the law against the Jews unable to be changed.

The new decree (Dan 6:7-6:9)

“All the presidents

Of the kingdom,

The prefects,

The satraps,

The counselors,

The governors,

All agreed.

The king

Should establish

An ordinance.

He should enforce

An interdict.

‘Whoever prays

To anyone,

Divine,

Or human,

For thirty days,

Except to you,

O king!

Shall be cast

Into a den of lions.

Now,

O king!

Establish the interdict!

Sign the document!

Thus,

It cannot be changed,

According to the law

Of the Medes,

Of the Persians.

It cannot be revoked.’

Therefore,

King Darius signed

The document.

He signed

The interdict.”

Thus, the two other presidents of the kingdom, with the prefects, the satraps, the counselors, and the governors all agreed that the king should establish an ordinance to be enforced as an interdict. This ordinance would say that anyone who prayed to any divine or human for the next 30 days, except to the king himself, should be cast into a den of lions. Then the king established this interdict and signed the document that could not be changed, according to the laws of Medes and Persia. This is somewhat reminiscent of the story of the king in Book of Esther, chapters 3-4 and 8-9, against the Jews.

The division of the land by tribes (Ezek 47:21-47:21)

“Thus,

You shall divide

This land

Among you,

According

To the tribes

Of Israel.”

Now that the boundaries of the country of Israel were established, it remained to distribute the land to the various tribes of Israel. Like the boundaries of the country, it sounded easier in theory than in reality. Much of this had been laid out in Numbers, chapter 34, and Joshua, chapters 13-19.

The eternal covenant (Ezek 16:59-16:60)

“Yes!

Thus says Yahweh God.

‘I will deal

With you

As you have done.

You have despised

The oath.

You have broken

The covenant.

Yet I will remember

My covenant

With you

In the days

Of your youth.

I will establish

With you

An everlasting covenant.”

Yahweh was going to establish an everlasting covenant with Jerusalem, even though she had forgotten and despised this oath. She had broken her covenant with Yahweh. However, he would remember the days of Jerusalem’s youth. He would remember the day that he established his everlasting covenant with her, despite the lack of commitment on her part.

King Zedekiah (Jer 52:1-52:1)

“King Zedekiah

Was twenty-one years old,

When he began to reign.

He reigned eleven years

In Jerusalem.

His mother’s name

Was Hamutal

The daughter

Of Jeremiah

Of Libnah.”

This is very similar to the ending of 2 Kings, chapter 24, almost word for word. However, there is no mention here that the king of Babylon established Mattaniah, the son of King Josiah, as the king and then gave him a new name, King Zedekiah (598-587 BCE). This 21 year old King Zedekiah was 3 years older than his nephew, the deposed King Jehoiachin (598 BCE). He had the same mother, Hamutal from Libnah, as King Jehoiakim (609-598 BCE), so that they were blood brothers with the same mother and father. King Zedekiah ruled for 11 years in Jerusalem.

The God of creation (Jer 51:15-51:16)

“He made

The earth

By his power.

He established

The world

By his wisdom.

By his understanding,

He stretched out the heavens.

When he utters

His voice

There is a tumult of waters

In the heavens.

He makes the mist rise

From the ends of the earth.

He makes lightning

For the rain.

He brings forth

The wind

From his storehouses.”

This is exactly the same, word for word from chapter 10 about the power of Yahweh. Jeremiah proclaimed that Yahweh was all powerful. He made the earth by his power. Thus he established the world by his wisdom. He stretched out the heavens by his understanding, so that when he uttered his voice, the waters in the heaven could create a mist from the ends of the earth. He made lightning in the rain. He also brought wind from his various wind storehouses. Thus you can see this author’s cosmology about the powerful God, Yahweh, who has control of the world and its climate.

 

The power of God (Jer 33:2-33:3)

“Thus says Yahweh.

Who made the earth.

Yahweh formed it

To establish it.

Yahweh is his name.

‘Call to me!

I will answer you!

I will tell you great things.

I will tell you hidden things

That you have not known.’”

Yahweh has made the earth, as he formed it and established it. There is no doubt that Yahweh was his name. Because Yahweh is so powerful, he wants them to call to him, since he was going to answer them. He would tell them great and hidden things that they did not know about.

The power of Yahweh (Jer 10:12-10:13)

“It is he who made the earth

By his power.

He established the world

By his wisdom.

By his understanding,

He stretched out the heavens.

When he utters his voice

There is a tumult of waters

In the heavens.

He makes the mist rise

From the ends of the earth.

He makes lightning for the rain.

He brings forth the wind

From his storehouses.”

Jeremiah proclaims that Yahweh is all powerful. He made the earth by his power and thus established the world by his wisdom. He stretched out the heavens by his understanding, so that when he utters his voice, the waters in the heaven can create a mist from the ends of the earth. He makes lightning in the rain. He also brings wind from his various wind storehouses. Thus you can see this author’s cosmology about the powerful God, Yahweh, who has control of the world and its climate.

The sentinels on the wall (Isa 62:6-62:7)

“O Jerusalem!

Upon your walls

I have set sentinels.

All day,

All night,

They shall never be silent.

You who remind Yahweh!

Take no rest!

Give him no rest

Until he establishes Jerusalem!

Until he makes it renowned

Throughout the earth!”

Yahweh was going to put sentinels or watchmen on the walls, day and night, that would never be silent. They were there to remind Yahweh that he was not to rest until Jerusalem had been established and known throughout the world.