Leave the city (Lk 21:21-21:21)

“Then those in Judea

Must flee

To the mountains.

Those inside the city

Must leave it.

Those out in the country

Must not enter the city.”

 

τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη, καὶ οἱ ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῆς ἐκχωρείτωσαν, καὶ οἱ ἐν ταῖς χώραις μὴ εἰσερχέσθωσαν εἰς αὐτήν,

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that those in Judea (τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) should flee to the mountains (φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη).  Those people inside the city (καὶ οἱ ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῆς) ought to leave it (ἐκχωρείτωσαν).  Once again, this a unique term of Luke, ἐκχωρείτωσαν that means to depart, withdraw, go out, or flee.  Also, those out in the country (καὶ οἱ ἐν ταῖς χώραις), should not enter the city (μὴ εἰσερχέσθωσαν εἰς αὐτήν).  This is exactly the same, word for word in Mark, chapter 13:14, and in Matthew, chapter 24:16, except that Luke added this idea about not coming into the city.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that those people in Judea (τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) should flee or escape to the mountains or the hills (φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη).  Matthew was exactly the same.  Jesus said that those people in Judea (τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) should flee or escape to the mountains or the hills (φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη).  Head to the hills!  Maybe this is a reference to the Jewish revolt in 66-70 CE, when many Jews fled Judea as the Jerusalem Temple was destroyed.  They were to get out of Dodge, leave the city of Jerusalem.  Have you ever had to flee from some place?

Peter was confronted a third time (Mk 14:70-14:70)

“Then after a little while,

The bystanders again

Said to Peter.

‘Certainly!

You are one of them!

You are a Galilean!’”

 

καὶ μετὰ μικρὸν πάλιν οἱ παρεστῶτες ἔλεγον τῷ Πέτρῳ Ἀληθῶς ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶ· καὶ γὰρ Γαλιλαῖος εἶ.

 

This is similar to Matthew, chapter 26:73, Luke, chapter 22:59, and John, chapter 18:26, with some changes.  Peter was confronted a 3rd time.  John said that a man recognized, Peter, because he was a relative of the one whose ear Peter had cut off.  Matthew said that after a little while some of the bystanders approached Peter.  Luke said that it was about an hour later when another person came up to Peter.  Mark, like Matthew, said that that after a little while (καὶ μετὰ μικρὸν), some bystanders again said to Peter (ἔλεγον τῷ Πέτρῳ) that he certainly was one of those followers of Jesus (Ἀληθῶς ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶ), because he was from Galilee (καὶ γὰρ Γαλιλαῖος εἶ), a Galilean.  Matthew added that Peter’s accent in his speech betrayed him as a man from Galilee.  For a 3td time, Peter was accused of being a man from Galilee, a follower of Jesus of Nazareth.  You can never escape your accent.

 

Two days before Passover (Mk 14:1-14:1)

“It was two days

Before the Passover,

The Festival

Of Unleavened Bread.”

 

Ἦν δὲ τὸ πάσχα καὶ τὰ ἄζυμα μετὰ δύο ἡμέρας

 

There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 26:2, and in Luke, chapter 22:1, where there was talk of the Passover in 2 days.  There were 3 major annual pilgrimage festivals in Jerusalem, Pentecost, Booths, and Passover, with Passover the most popular.  This Passover feast celebrated the Israelite Exodus from Egypt.  Therefore, this festival reminded the Jewish people of their escape from a foreign country.  Thus, the Roman leaders had a heightened alert with more troops in Jerusalem.  Mark indicated that Jesus said to his disciples that it was 2 days (μετὰ δύο ἡμέρας), before the Passover (Ἦν δὲ τὸ πάσχα), the festival of Unleavened Bread (καὶ τὰ ἄζυμα) that lasted a whole week.  Passover and Unleavened bread were one festival, not 2 separate ones.

Flee to the mountains (Mk 13:14-13:14)

“But when you see

The desolating sacrilege

Set up

Where it ought

Not to be,

Let the reader

Understand!

Then those in Judea

Must flee

To the mountains!”

 

Ὅταν δὲ ἴδητε τὸ βδέλυγμα τῆς ἐρημώσεως ἑστηκότα ὅπου οὐ δεῖ, ὁ ἀναγινώσκων νοείτω, τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη,

 

There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:15-16, and in Luke, chapter 21:20-21.  However, only Matthew specifically mentioned the prophet Daniel, while Luke was more specific about the city of Jerusalem.  Mark said that Jesus warned them that when they saw the desolating sacrilege or cursed devastation (Ὅταν δὲ ἴδητε τὸ βδέλυγμα τῆς ἐρημώσεως) standing or set up in the place where it should not be (ἑστηκότα ὅπου οὐ δεῖ), those reading this should understand (ὁ ἀναγινώσκων νοείτω) what was happening.  Then those people in Judea (τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) should flee or escape to the mountains or the hills (φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη).  Head to the hills!  Maybe this is a reference to the Jewish revolt in 66-70 CE, when many Jews fled Judea as the Jerusalem Temple was destroyed.

Judea (Mt 24:16-24:16)

“Then those in Judea

Must flee

To the mountains.”

 

τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη,

 

This is exactly the same, word for word in Mark, chapter 13:14, and in Luke, chapter 21:21.  Then those people in Judea (τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) should flee or escape to the mountains or the hills (φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη).  Head to the hills!  Maybe this is a reference to the Jewish revolt in 66-70 CE, when many Jews fled Judea as the Jerusalem Temple was destroyed.

 

The serpents (Mt 23:33-23:33)

“You snakes!

You brood of vipers!

How can you

Escape

Being sentenced

To Gehenna?”

 

ὄφεις, γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, πῶς φύγητε ἀπὸ τῆς κρίσεως τῆς γεέννης;

 

This attack on the Pharisees and Scribes is somewhat similar to the attack that John the Baptist had against the Pharisees and Sadducees earlier in Matthew, chapter 3:7.  When they came to be baptized by John, he was critical of both the Pharisees and the Sadducees.  He told them that they were like a group of vipers or poisonous snakes (Γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν), who would kill young people.  Here there is no mention of the Sadducees.  But the Pharisees and Scribes are called snakes (ὄφεις) and a brood of vipers or a group of poisonous snakes (γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν).  Jesus wanted to know how they could escape (πῶς φύγητε) being sentenced to Gehenna or hell (ἀπὸ τῆς κρίσεως τῆς γεέννης).  The Greek word for hell “γέενναν” or the English Gehenna was based on the Hebrew word Gehinnom that was the name of the valley south of Jerusalem where burning child sacrifices would take place.

A call to the exiles (Zech 2:6-2:7)

“‘Up!

Up!

Flee from the land

Of the north!’

Says Yahweh.

‘I have spread you abroad

Like the four winds

Of the heaven.’

Says Yahweh.

‘Up!

Escape to Zion!

You that live

With daughter Babylon.’”

Next Zechariah has Yahweh call all the Israelites living in the north land of Babylon to return to Zion.  They were to flee and escape this northern country.  Yahweh had spread them to the 4 winds of heaven, but now they were to get up and come back to Jerusalem.