Who is the judge? (Lk 12:14-12:14)

“But Jesus said to him.

‘Man!

Who appointed me

To be a judge

Or arbitrator

Over you?’”

 

ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἄνθρωπε, τίς με κατέστησεν κριτὴν ἢ μεριστὴν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς;

 

Luke uniquely continued this episode with a response from Jesus.  Luke indicated that Jesus responded by calling him “man” (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἄνθρωπε).  Jesus said.  “Who appointed me to be a judge or arbitrator over you (τίς με κατέστησεν κριτὴν ἢ μεριστὴν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς)?”  This is the only time that the word μεριστὴν was used in the biblical literature, meaning someone who divided, partitioned, or arbitrated things.  Luke indicated that Jesus did not want to get involved in these family disputes, as he did not want to judge this family.  However, this did become an occasion for Jesus to talk about wealth.  Is it good to have wealthy parents?

They laughed at Jesus (Lk 8:53-8:53)

“They laughed

At Jesus.

Because they knew

That she was dead.”

 

καὶ κατεγέλων αὐτοῦ, εἰδότες ὅτι ἀπέθανεν.

 

Luke said that they laughed at Jesus (καὶ κατεγέλων αὐτοῦ), because they knew that the young girl was dead (εἰδότες ὅτι ἀπέθανεν).  This episode of the crowd laughing at Jesus is similar to what can be found in Matthew, chapter 9:24, and Mark, chapter 5:40.  Mark said that they laughed at him or ridiculed Jesus, so that he put the crowd outside.  He then took the child’s father and mother, and those who were with him, his 3 trusted apostles, in where the child was.  Jesus had gotten rid of the mourners and skeptics, as he now had the true believers with him and the little girl.  Matthew also said that mourners laughed at Jesus or ridiculed him.  This will not be the only time that people will ridicule Jesus and his disciples.  Have you ever laughed or ridiculed someone else’s religious beliefs or practices?

The woman with flowing blood (Lk 8:43-8:43)

“A woman

Had been suffering

From flowing blood

For twelve years.

Although she had spent

All that she had

On physicians,

No one

Could cure her.”

 

καὶ γυνὴ οὖσα ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος ἀπὸ ἐτῶν δώδεκα, ἥτις οὐκ ἴσχυσεν ἀπ’ οὐδενὸς θεραπευθῆναι

 

This episode about the woman with flowing blood interrupted the story about the synagogue leader and his dying daughter.  However, it can be found in Matthew, chapter 9:20, Mark, chapter 5:25, and Luke here.  Thus, Mark might be the source.  Luke said that a woman had been suffering from flowing blood (καὶ γυνὴ οὖσα ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος) for 12 years (ἀπὸ ἐτῶν δώδεκα).  Although she had spent all that she had on physicians (ἰατροῖς προσαναλώσασα ὅλον τὸν βίον), no one could cure her (ἥτις οὐκ ἴσχυσεν ἀπ’ οὐδενὸς θεραπευθῆναι).  This phrase about spending all her money on physicians was only in the Byzantine text.  Mark, like Luke, who probably followed him, said that she had suffered from flowing blood, rather than hemorrhages.  All agree that she had been suffering for 12 years with this bleeding.  Mark and Luke had a more elaborate story, about her background.  Mark said that she had endured or greatly suffered much under many physicians.  Thus, she had spent all her money.  Instead of helping her get better, she had actually become worse.  She was in a desperate situation.  Interesting enough, the word that Matthew used for hemorrhages (αἱμορροοῦσα) is only found there, but nowhere else in the biblical literature.  Mark and Luke said that she had flowing blood.  All agree that she had been suffering for 12 years with this bleeding.  Could you suffer something for 12 years?

The only daughter of Jairus (Lk 8:42-8:42)

“Jairus had

An only daughter,

About twelve years old.

She was dying.

As Jesus went,

The crowds

Pressed in on him.”

 

ὅτι θυγάτηρ μονογενὴς ἦν αὐτῷ ὡς ἐτῶν δώδεκα καὶ αὐτὴ ἀπέθνῃσκεν. Ἐν δὲ τῷ ὑπάγειν αὐτὸν οἱ ὄχλοι συνέπνιγον αὐτόν.

 

Luke said that Jairus had an only daughter (ὅτι θυγάτηρ μονογενὴς ἦν αὐτῷ), about 12 years old (ὡς ἐτῶν δώδεκα).  She was dying (καὶ αὐτὴ ἀπέθνῃσκεν).  As Jesus went (Ἐν δὲ τῷ ὑπάγειν αὐτὸν), the crowds pressed in on him (οἱ ὄχλοι συνέπνιγον αὐτόν).  This episode about the request from the synagogue leader about his daughter can be found in Matthew, chapter 9:18-19, but there this leader said that his daughter had just died.  Luke mentioned that Jairus’ daughter was 12 years old, but dying.  Mark, chapter 5:23-24, said that she was very sick, not dead.  Mark said that Jairus, the synagogue leader, begged Jesus, saying that his little daughter was near the end of her life.  He wanted Jesus to come and lay his hands on her, so that she would be cured and live.  This synagogue leader had a great belief in Jesus.  Jesus responded immediately, without saying anything.  Jesus simply got up and went with Jairus.  However, a large crowd also followed them, so that this crowd pressed against him.  Matthew said that Jairus spoke to Jesus telling him that his daughter had just died.  There was no mention of this in other two synoptic gospels.  In Mark, she was very sick, not dead.  However, his belief in the power of Jesus was clear.  He said that if Jesus came, he could lay his hand on her.  Then she would live.  This leader had a great belief in Jesus to raise the dead.  Jesus then responded immediately, without saying anything.  He simply got up with his disciples.  They followed this leader.  Do you believe in the power of Jesus?

The invitation from Jairus (Lk 8:41-8:41)

“Just then,

There came a man

Named Jairus,

A leader

Of the synagogue.

He fell

At Jesus’ feet.

He begged him

To come

To his house.”

 

καὶ ἰδοὺ ἦλθεν ἀνὴρ ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰάειρος, καὶ οὗτος ἄρχων τῆς συναγωγῆς ὑπῆρχεν· καὶ πεσὼν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Ἰησοῦ παρεκάλει αὐτὸν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ,

 

Luke said that just then, a man came (καὶ ἰδοὺ ἦλθεν ἀνὴρ) named Jairus (ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰάειρος), a leader of a synagogue (καὶ οὗτος ἄρχων τῆς συναγωγῆς ὑπῆρχεν).  He fell at Jesus’ feet (καὶ πεσὼν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας).  He begged Jesus (Ἰησοῦ παρεκάλει αὐτὸν) to come to his house (εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ).  This episode about the healing of this synagogue leader’s daughter can also be found in Matthew, chapter 9:18 and Mark, chapter 5:22.  Matthew never mentioned his name, Jairus, but Mark did, just like Luke here.  Mark said that one of the leaders of a synagogue named Jairus came forward.  Seeing Jesus, he fell at the feet of Jesus, as if to worship him.  Technically, the Jewish synagogue did not have structured roles, but Jairus was obviously an important person in some unnamed synagogue that might have been close by.  Matthew only called this man a generic leader or ruler of a synagogue.  Apparently, this took place while Jesus was speaking to the people.  This unnamed leader came and knelt before Jesus.  Certainly, this was an important Jewish person asking Jesus for help.  Do you know the leaders in your Church?

What to do? (Lk 6:11-6:11)

“But they

Were filled

With fury.

They discussed

With one another

What they might do

To Jesus.”

 

αὐτοὶ δὲ ἐπλήσθησαν ἀνοίας, καὶ διελάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους τί ἂν ποιήσαιεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ.

 

Luke said that they were filled with rage or fury (ὐτοὶ δὲ ἐπλήσθησαν ἀνοίας).  They discussed with one another (καὶ διελάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους) what they might do to Jesus (τί ἂν ποιήσαιεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ).  Matthew, chapter 12:14, and Mark, chapter 3:6, are similar to Luke.  However, Mark was the only one to mention both the Pharisees and the Herodians.  Matthew mentioned just the Pharisees, while Luke used the vague “they”.  Mark said that the Pharisees conspired with the Herodians against Jesus.  They wondered how they could destroy or kill him.  The Herodians were not a religious group but a political group that backed the Galilean governor Herod Antipas (4-39 CE).  Right from the beginning, there was this animosity between Jesus and the religious leaders of the Pharisees and the local political leaders of Herod.  Matthew has this episode end with only the Pharisees getting together to conspire to destroy Jesus.  However, the wording was a little different among these synoptic writers, but all these people conspired on how to grab, destroy, or kill Jesus.

The lepers at the time of Elisha (Lk 4:27-4:27)

“There were also many lepers

In Israel

At the time

Of the prophet Elisha.

None of them

Was cleansed,

Except Naaman,

The Syrian.”

 

καὶ πολλοὶ λεπροὶ ἦσαν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπὶ Ἑλισαίου τοῦ προφήτου, καὶ οὐδεὶς αὐτῶν ἐκαθαρίσθη εἰ μὴ Ναιμὰν ὁ Σύρος.

 

Luke then cited another unique story about the prophet Elisha, the prophet who followed Elijah in the 9th century BCE.  He too was well known for his exploits in the first 13 chapters of 2 Kings.  This episode was about Naaman, the commander of the Aramean army, who suffered from some kind of leprosy.  Naaman asked his king if he could go get a cure from a prophet he had heard about.  Elisha told the king to send Naaman to him so that he could cure him.  He told Naaman to wash himself 7 times in the Jordan River.  This made Naaman very upset.  Finally, he went and immersed himself 7 times in the Jordan River.  Thus, he was cured of his leprosy, as found in 2 Kings, 5:1-14.  Luke said that there were also many lepers (καὶ πολλοὶ λεπροὶ ἦσαν) in Israel (ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ) at the time of the prophet Elisha (ἐπὶ Ἑλισαίου τοῦ προφήτου).  None of them were cleansed (καὶ οὐδεὶς αὐτῶν ἐκαθαρίσθη), except Naaman, the Syrian (εἰ μὴ Ναιμὰν ὁ Σύρος).  Syrian and Aramean are almost the same.  The key idea was that someone other than an Israelite was cured.