The daily burnt offering of the lamb (Ezek 46:13-46:15)

“The prince shall provide

A lamb a year old,

Without blemish,

For a burnt offering

To Yahweh

Daily.

Morning by morning

He shall provide it.

He shall provide

A grain offering

With it,

Morning by morning.

This shall be

One sixth of an ephah,

One third of a hin of oil

To moisten the flour,

As a grain offering

To Yahweh.

This is the ordinance

For all time.

Thus,

The lamb

With the grain offering,

Along with the oil,

Shall be provided,

Morning by morning,

As a regular burnt offering.”

Not only was the prince responsible for the sacrifices at the festivals, the weekly Sabbath, and the monthly new moon offerings, he was also responsible for providing the lamb offered up daily as a burnt offering in the Temple to Yahweh. Besides that, he also had to provide a small grain offering of 1/6th of an ephah or less than 1/10th of a bushel of grain with 1/3rd of a gallon of oil. This was a daily task. The oil moistened the flour, as usual. Yahweh, via Ezekiel said that this was a perpetual ordinance. There was to be a morning burnt offering to Yahweh of a lamb, with the accompanying grain and oil, every single day.

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The prince provides the offerings (Ezek 46:4-46:5)

“The burnt offering

That the prince

Offers to Yahweh,

On the Sabbath day

Shall be

Six lambs

Without blemish,

With a ram

Without blemish.

The grain offering

With the ram

Shall be an ephah.

The grain offering

With the lambs

Shall be as much

As he wishes to give.

There will be

A hin of oil

For each ephah.”

The Sabbath burnt offerings of the prince were clearly laid out by Yahweh, via Ezekiel. Each Sabbath, six unblemished lambs and one ram were to be offered with an ephah of a grain offering for the ram. However, the prince could decide about how much grain for the lambs. Nevertheless, for each ephah of grain (about 2/3rds of bushel), there had to be a hin or a gallon of oil.

Just measurements (Ezek 45:10-45:12)

“You shall have

Honest balances.

There must be

An honest ephah,

There must be

An honest bath.

The ephah

With the bath

Shall be

Of the same measure.

The bath

Contains one tenth

Of a homer.

The ephah contains

One tenth

Of a homer.

The homer shall be

The standard measure.

The shekel shall be

Twenty gerahs.

Twenty shekels,

Twenty-five shekels,

Shall make a mina

For you.”

Yahweh, via Ezekiel, was going to tell them how to keep their measurements just and correct. What are all these measurements? Ezekiel loved to be exact. First, a homer was a measure for liquids, about 60 gallons or 6 bushels of grain. The bath was about 6 gallons. The ephah was a measurement for grains about 2/3rd of a bushel or about 6 gallons. The gerah was the smallest size coin, about 1/50th of ounce. The shekel coin was 2/5th of an ounce. The mina was the largest coin, about 1.25 pounds. Thus, these were to be the standard measurements.

Caravans from the east (Isa 60:6-60:7)

“A multitude of camels

Shall cover you.

The young camels of Midian

With the camels of Ephah

Shall cover you.

All those from Sheba

Shall come.

They shall bring gold.

They shall bring frankincense.

They shall proclaim the praise of Yahweh.

All the flocks of Kedar

Shall be gathered to you.

The rams of Nebaioth

Shall minister to you.

They shall be acceptable on my altar.

I will glorify my glorious house.”

The caravan trade had been very lucrative. Thus the camels with all their goodies would travel to Jerusalem from eastern Midian and Ephah that were in Arabia. Sheba was in southern Arabia, prominent in the stories of King Solomon. They were bringing the traditional gifts of gold and frankincense, which was an expensive spice. They were going to proclaim the praises of Yahweh. So too, the flocks from the eastern desert area from the Arab tribes of Kedar, as well as the rams of the Nebaioth tribe, would be gifts for Jerusalem. These would be acceptable at the altar of Yahweh in his house.

A reproach against large estates (Isa 5:8-5:10)

“Woe to you

Who join house to house!

Woe to you

Who add field to field!

Finally there is room

For no one but you.

You are left

To live alone

In the midst of the land.

Yahweh of hosts has sworn

In my hearing.

‘Surely many houses

Shall be desolate.

Large houses

Will be without inhabitants.

Beautiful houses

Will be without inhabitants.

Ten acres of vineyard

Shall yield but one bath.

A homer of seed

Shall yield a mere ephah.’”

Next Isaiah issues a series of curses or reproaches to the people of Judah. First of all, he rants about the idea of people wanting too much land. If you add house to house, or field to field, you make it difficult for others. Your huge estate will leave you to live alone on your land. Yahweh had spoken to Isaiah to say that many houses will lay desolate. Large and beautiful houses will be empty. The land will not yield much. 10 acres will only produce about 6 gallons (a bath) of a crop. 6 bushels of seed (a homer) will produce less than a bushel of grapes (an ephah). The more you try to expand your living area and your fields, the more it will come to very little.

The concubines of Caleb (1 Chr 2:46-2:50)

“Ephah also, Caleb’s concubine, bore Haran, Moza, and Gazez. Haran became the father of Gazez. The sons of Jahdai were Regem, Jotham, Geshan, Pelet, Ephah, and Shaaph. Maacah, Caleb’s concubine, bore Sheber and Tirhanah. She also bore Shaaph the father of Madmannah, Sheva the father of Machbenah and the father of Gibea. The daughter of Caleb was Achsah. These were the descendants of Caleb.”

Caleb had at least 3 concubines. (1) Ephah had 3 sons Haran, Moza, and Gazez. Haran was the name of Abraham’s younger brother and also a place in Mesopotamia, where Abraham’s brother stayed, probably named after him. There was another Moza who was the descendent of Saul. Haran was the father of Gazez, but I thought that was his brother. Perhaps he named his son after his brother, but this is the only mention of Gazez in the biblical literature. The sons of the concubine (2) Jahdai were Regem, Jotham, Geshan, Pelet, Ephah, and Shaaph, only mentioned here, with the exception of Ephah. Ephah was a place supposedly names after the grandson of Abraham and son of Midian as well as the name of Caleb’s other concubine. However Shaaph was the father of Madmannah, which was the name of town near Gaza. Sheva was the brother of Madmannah and the father of Machbenah, who became the father of Gibea. Sheva was the name of one of David’s scribes, while this is the only mention of Machbenah and Gibea in biblical literature. (3) Maacah, the 3rd concubine, bore Sheber and Tirhanah, who were only mentioned here. There were other people with the name Maacah, but also a small country beside Palestine as in 2 Samuel, chapter 10. As if to not neglect women there is a mention that the daughter of Caleb was Achsah, who was given as a prize in Joshua, chapter 15. Finally, I think we are done with Caleb and his descendents.