Preaching in the synagogue (Lk 6:6-6:6)

“On another Sabbath,

Jesus entered

The synagogue.

He taught.

There was a man there

Whose right hand

Was withered.”

 

Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἑτέρῳ σαββάτῳ εἰσελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν καὶ διδάσκειν· καὶ ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖ καὶ ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ ἡ δεξιὰ ἦν ξηρά·

 

Luke said that on another Sabbath (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἑτέρῳ σαββάτῳ), Jesus entered an unnamed synagogue (εἰσελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν) where he taught there (καὶ διδάσκειν).  There was a man present (καὶ ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖ) in the assembly whose right hand was withered (καὶ ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ ἡ δεξιὰ ἦν ξηρά).  Matthew, chapter 12:9, and Mark, chapter 3:1 are similar to this incident, so that Mark might be the source of this discussion about the Sabbath and the man with the withered or dried out hand.  Matthew had Jesus leave the grain fields and enter the local synagogue, instead of waiting another week or another Sabbath as Luke indicated.  Clearly, Jesus was a good Jewish person, so that he had no trouble or unease about entering the local synagogue, probably at Capernaum.  Maybe he had taught there before.  Matthew had the discussion that began in the fields now switch to the synagogue.  What was Jesus going to do about this man with the bad hand?

The example of David (Lk 6:4-6:4)

“David entered

The house of God.

He took

The bread of the Presence.

He ate it.

This was not lawful

For anyone,

But the priests

To eat.

He also gave some

To his companions.’”

 

ὡς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως λαβὼν ἔφαγεν καὶ ἔδωκεν τοῖς μετ’ αὐτοῦ, οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν εἰ μὴ μόνους τοὺς ἱερεῖς;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that David entered the house of God (ὡς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ).  He took (λαβὼν) the show bread of the Presence (καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως) and ate it (ἔφαγεν).  He also gave some to his companions (καὶ ἔδωκεν τοῖς μετ’ αὐτοῦ).  However, this was not lawful for them to eat it (οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν), since it was only for the priests (εἰ μὴ μόνους τοὺς ἱερεῖς).  Matthew, chapter 12:4, and Mark, chapter 2:26, are similar to Luke, so that perhaps Mark may be the origin of this saying of Jesus.  Jesus cited the example of David in 1 Samuel, chapter 21:1-6.  Luke did not mention some of the incorrect details about the high priest that were in Mark and Matthew.  In 1 Samuel, David went to the Levite town of Nob, not the house of God as mentioned here.  There Ahimelech was the high priest, not Abiathar as Mark and Matthew indicated.  David said that he was hungry and needed bread for himself and his men.  However, they only had consecrated holy bread for the sacrifices, not common bread.  This showbread, the bread of the Presence, was 12 loaves or cakes of bread that was replaced weekly in the holy place in the Temple that symbolized communion with God.  Either he took it or the priest then gave him the holy bread anyway.  He and his companions ate the bread of the Presence or sacred Levite bread.  However, it was not lawful for them to eat it, because only the Levite priests were allowed to eat this sacred bread.  Thus, Jesus used this example of David to answer the Pharisees, although there are some discrepancies in this story about David.

Simon’s house (Lk 4:38-4:38)

“Jesus left

The synagogue.

He entered

Simon’s house.

Now Simon’s mother-in-law

Was suffering

From a high fever.

They asked him

About her.”

 

Ἀναστὰς δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς συναγωγῆς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν Σίμωνος. πενθερὰ δὲ τοῦ Σίμωνος ἦν συνεχομένη πυρετῷ μεγάλῳ, καὶ ἠρώτησαν αὐτὸν περὶ αὐτῆς.

 

Luke said that Jesus left the synagogue (Ἀναστὰς δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς συναγωγῆς) in Capernaum.  He then entered Simon’s house (εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν Σίμωνος) that was probably in Capernaum also.  Simon’s mother-in-law (πενθερὰ δὲ τοῦ Σίμωνος) was suffering from a high fever (ἦν συνεχομένη πυρετῷ μεγάλῳ).  They asked or appealed to Jesus about her (καὶ ἠρώτησαν αὐτὸν περὶ αὐτῆς).  Matthew, chapter 8:14, and Mark, chapter 1:29-30, both have something similar, as well.  Mark said that as soon as Jesus left the synagogue, he entered the house of Simon and Andrew, his brother, nor just Simon’s house.  Thus, this may have been a family residence.  Matthew said clearly it was Peter’s house, using his Greek name that Jesus gave him.  Only Mark mentioned James and John being there also.  In Luke and Mark, Jesus was leaving the synagogue, so that this would be the second healing on the Sabbath.  However, Matthew had them coming here after curing the centurion’s servant.  Anyway, Jesus and his disciples were in a place that Simon or Peter stayed or lived in Capernaum.  This residence of Simon may have become the headquarters for Jesus’ ministry in Galilee.  In Matthew, Jesus saw Peter’s mother-in-law lying in bed sick with a fever, so that no one had to tell him about it, as in Mark and Luke.  In all three gospel stories, she was sick with a fever, lying in bed.  There is no indication of what kind of illness this was or whether it was chronic or severe.  No one explained why Peter’s mother-in-law was living in this house.  Was this a permanent arrangement?  There were no indications of where Simon’s wife was, even if she was there, since there was no mention whatsoever of Peter’s wife in any of these stories.

Mary meets Elizabeth (Lk 1:40-1:40)

“Mary entered

The house

Of Zechariah.

She greeted

Elizabeth.”

 

καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον Ζαχαρίου καὶ ἠσπάσατο τὴν Ἐλεισάβετ.

 

Luke had this simple meeting between Mary and Elizabeth.  Luke said that Mary entered the house of Zechariah (καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον Ζαχαρίου).  Then she greeted or paid her respects to Elizabeth (καὶ ἠσπάσατο τὴν Ἐλεισάβετ), as anyone would.  Apparently, these cousins knew each other, but how is not clear.

A young man dressed in white (Mk 16:5-16:5)

“As they entered the tomb,

They saw a young man,

Wearing a white robe.

He was sitting

On the right side.

They were amazed.”

 

καὶ εἰσελθοῦσαι εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον εἶδον νεανίσκον καθήμενον ἐν τοῖς δεξιοῖς περιβεβλημένον στολὴν λευκήν, καὶ ἐξεθαμβήθησαν.

 

Matthew, chapter 28:2-7, is the only gospel story to explicitly describe the actions and the angel at the tomb.  In Luke, chapter 24:4-7, there were 2 men in dazzling clothes standing in the tomb, who explained everything.  John, chapter 20:11-13, had 2 angels talk to Mary Magdalene in the tomb.  Here Mark said that as the 3 women entered the tomb (καὶ εἰσελθοῦσαι εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον), they saw a young man (εἶδον νεανίσκον) sitting on the right side in the tomb (καθήμενον ἐν τοῖς δεξιοῖς).  He was wearing a white robe (περιβεβλημένον στολὴν λευκήν).  Thus, these 3 women were astonished or greatly amazed (καὶ ἐξεθαμβήθησαν) at what they saw.  Where was the body of Jesus?

The two disciples prepare the Passover meal (Mk 14:16-14:16)

“Thus,

The disciples

Set out.

They went

To the city.

They found everything

As Jesus

Had told them.

They prepared

The Passover meal.”

 

καὶ ἐξῆλθον οἱ μαθηταὶ καὶ ἦλθον εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ εὗρον καθὼς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἡτοίμασαν τὸ πάσχα.

 

This is similar to Matthew, chapter 26:19, and Luke, chapter 22:13, with Luke closer to Mark.  Jesus’ 2 unnamed disciples went away (καὶ ἐξῆλθον οἱ μαθηταὶ).  They then entered into the city (καὶ ἦλθον εἰς τὴν πόλιν).  They found everything just as Jesus had told them (καὶ εὗρον καθὼς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς).  They prepared the Passover meal (καὶ ἡτοίμασαν τὸ πάσχα).  Nothing unusual here, the disciples followed the orders of Jesus.  Things happened as he said that they would.  Thus, they had this room ready for the Passover celebration.

Clearing out the Temple (Mk 11:15-11:15)

“Then they came

To Jerusalem.

Jesus entered

The Temple.

He began

To drive out

Those who were selling

And those who were buying

In the temple.

He overturned

The tables

Of the money-changers.

He overturned

The seats

Of those who sold doves.”

 

Καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα. Καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἤρξατο ἐκβάλλειν τοὺς πωλοῦντας καὶ τοὺς ἀγοράζοντας ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, καὶ τὰς τραπέζας τῶν κολλυβιστῶν καὶ τὰς καθέδρας τῶν πωλούντων τὰς περιστερὰς κατέστρεψεν,

 

This description of Jesus in the Temple by Mark, can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:12, almost word for word, and Luke, chapter 19:45, with a short summary.  In John, chapter 2:14-16, there is a more elaborate description, but at the beginning of the ministry of Jesus.  Mark described how Jesus and his disciples entered Jerusalem (Καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα).  When they entered the Temple (Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ ἱερόν), Jesus began to drive out or throw out (ἤρξατο ἐκβάλλειν) those who was selling (τοὺς πωλοῦντας), or buying (καὶ τοὺς ἀγοράζοντας) animals for the sacrifice offerings in the Temple (ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ).  John said that he had whips.  He overturned the tables of the money-changers (καὶ τὰς τραπέζας τῶν κολλυβιστῶν), who converted foreign coins into the Temple shekels for the Temple offerings.  He also overturned the chairs or the seats of those who were selling doves (καὶ τὰς καθέδρας τῶν πωλούντων τὰς περιστεράς κατέστρεψεν) for the Temple sacrifices.  All these people were functionaries of the Temple.  They were trying to help people make the right sacrificial offerings there.  Obviously, they made money from these sales, but this was the normal customary thing in the Temple.  Jesus upset these people with this somewhat violent action.  Up until this point, Jesus had been very mild mannered.

 

Why were the disciples not able to do this? (Mk 9:28-9:28)

“When Jesus had entered

The house,

His disciples

Asked him privately.

‘Why could

We not cast it out?’”

 

καὶ εἰσελθόντος αὐτοῦ εἰς οἶκον οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ κατ’ ἰδίαν ἐπηρώτων αὐτόν Ὅτι ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἠδυνήθημεν ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτό;

 

There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 17:19.  Mark said that Jesus and his disciples entered the house (καὶ εἰσελθόντος αὐτοῦ εἰς οἶκον).  Then the disciples asked or questioned Jesus privately (οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ κατ’ ἰδίαν ἐπηρώτων αὐτόν).  They wondered why they were not able to cast out the evil spirit from that boy (Ὅτι ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἠδυνήθημεν ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτό).  The disciples were concerned that they must have lacked something that made it impossible for them to get rid of this evil spirit that was in that boy.

Jesus goes to Tyre (Mk 7:24-7:24)

“From there,

Jesus set out.

He went away

To the region

Of Tyre.

He entered a house.

He did not want anybody

To know

That he was there.

Yet he could not

Escape notice.”

 

Ἐκεῖθεν δὲ ἀναστὰς ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὰ ὅρια Τύρου. Καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς οἰκίαν οὐδένα ἤθελεν γνῶναι, καὶ οὐκ ἠδυνάσθη λαθεῖν·

 

Matthew, chapter 15:21, has something similar, but also mentioned Sidon, while only some ancient orthodox texts added Sidon here.  Mark said that Jesus left the area (Ἐκεῖθεν δὲ ἀναστὰς) around the Sea of Galilee.  He went to the district or region of Tyre (ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὰ ὅρια Τύρου).  Tyre was a Phoenician coastal island city that still exists in southern Lebanon.  Known for its maritime trade and purple dye, it was actually originally in the Israelite territory of Asher.  The Mediterranean ports at both Sidon and Tyre. were commercial trading partners.  Tyre was a great ancient city with many merchant princes, while Sidon was also a maritime Phoenician city about 25 miles north of Tyre, mostly known for its fishing and trade.  Sidon was also the name of the grandson of Noah, and thus older than Tyre.  Traditionally, Isaiah, chapter 23, and the other prophets were against these two wealthy coastal towns.  It is not clear why Jesus went to this coastal region, except that the Pharisees were not there.  Mark has this unique sentence that Jesus entered a house (Καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς οἰκίαν) because he did not want anybody to know that he was there (οὐδένα ἤθελεν γνῶναι,).  However, he could not escape notice (καὶ οὐκ ἠδυνάσθη λαθεῖν).

The disciples ask about the parables (Mk 7:17-7:17)

“Jesus left

The crowd.

He entered

The house.

His disciples asked him

About the parables.”

 

Καὶ ὅτε εἰσῆλθεν εἰς οἶκον ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου, ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ τὴν παραβολήν.

 

This discussion is somewhat similar to a discussion that Peter had with Jesus in Matthew, chapter 15:15.  Mark seems to indicate that the disciples had a lack of understanding.  Mark said that when Jesus left the crowd (ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου), he entered the house (Καὶ ὅτε εἰσῆλθεν εἰς οἶκον).  Then his disciples were asking him about this parable (ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ τὴν παραβολήν).