“Next the vineyard owner sent
They also beat him.
They insulted him.
They sent him away
καὶ προσέθετο ἕτερον πέμψαι δοῦλον· οἱ δὲ κἀκεῖνον δείραντες καὶ ἀτιμάσαντες ἐξαπέστειλαν κενόν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that this landowner proceeded to send another slave (καὶ προσέθετο ἕτερον πέμψαι δοῦλον). These wicked tenants also beat (οἱ δὲ κἀκεῖνον δείραντες) and insulted him (καὶ ἀτιμάσαντες). They also sent him away empty-handed (ἐξαπέστειλαν κενόν). This beating of the second slave can be found in Mark, chapter 12:4, and Matthew, chapter 21:36, but there were multiple slaves in Matthew. Mark said that this landowner sent another slave again to them (καὶ πάλιν ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἄλλον δοῦλον) in another attempt to get his share of the crop. This time, they beat or struck this second slave over the head (κἀκεῖνον ἐκεφαλίωσαν) and insulted or shamed him (καὶ ἠτίμασαν). These wicked tenants did the same thing to him that they had done to the first slave. There definitely was a pattern developing here. Matthew had multiple individual slaves in both accounts, instead of one slave. This landowner sent more slaves (πάλιν ἀπέστειλεν ἄλλους δούλους) this second time around. This time, there was more than the 3 like the first time (πλείονας τῶν πρώτων), without any indication of how many. However, the wicked tenants did the same thing to them (καὶ ἐποίησαν αὐτοῖς ὡσαύτως) that they had done to the first group of slaves, which included killing and stoning them, once again without being specific. How would you treat bad tenants?
“When the harvest time came,
The vineyard owner
Sent a slave
To the tenants.
They might give him
Of the produce
Of the vineyard.
But the tenants
They sent him away
καὶ καιρῷ ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς δοῦλον, ἵνα ἀπὸ τοῦ καρποῦ τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος δώσουσιν αὐτῷ· οἱ δὲ γεωργοὶ ἐξαπέστειλαν αὐτὸν δείραντες κενόν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that when the harvest time came (καὶ καιρῷ), this land owner sent a slave to these tenants (ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς δοῦλον), so that they might give him (δώσουσιν αὐτῷ) his share of the produce from the vineyard (ἵνα ἀπὸ τοῦ καρποῦ τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). However, the tenants beat him (δείραντες). They sent him away empty-handed (οἱ δὲ γεωργοὶ ἐξαπέστειλαν αὐτὸν…κενόν). This parable about the wicked tenants can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:34-35, and Mark, chapter 12:2-3. Mark said that when the harvest season time came, the right time (τῷ καιρῷ), the landowner sent a slave (καὶ ἀπέστειλεν…δοῦλον), to these tenants or renters (πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς). He was to collect or receive (λάβῃ) from these tenant farmers (ἵνα παρὰ τῶν γεωργῶν) his share of the fruit produced from this vineyard (ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). This all seemed very reasonable. However, these tenant farmers seized this slave (καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν). They beat him (ἔδειραν). Then they sent him away empty-handed (καὶ ἀπέστειλαν κενόν). There was only one slave in both these accounts, instead of the 3 different slaves that Matthew indicated that Jesus talked about at this harvest time. Matthew remarked that Jesus said that when the time came when the grapes were ripe for picking (ὅτε δὲ ἤγγισεν ὁ καιρὸς τῶν καρπῶν), the landowner sent his slaves (ἀπέστειλεν τοὺς δούλους αὐτοῦ), not one slave, to these tenants or renters (τοὺς γεωργοὺς) to collect his fruit produce (λαβεῖν τοὺς καρποὺς αὐτοῦ). However, these tenant farmers seized his slaves (καὶ λαβόντες οἱ γεωργοὶ τοὺς δούλους αὐτοῦ). They beat one slave (ὃν μὲν ἔδειραν). Then they killed another slave (ὃν δὲ ἀπέκτειναν) and stoned still another slave (ὃν δὲ ἐλιθοβόλησαν). These tenant farmers were not very nice. Only Matthew had the 3 different slaves rather than the one slave as in Luke and Mark. They were also more destructive in Matthew. Have you been a good tenant?
“Then Peter said.
We have left
And followed you.’”
Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Πέτρος Ἰδοὺ ἡμεῖς ἀφέντες τὰ ἴδια ἠκολουθήσαμέν σοι.
Luke indicated that Peter said to Jesus (Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Πέτρος), that they had left their homes and possessions (Ἰδοὺ ἡμεῖς ἀφέντες τὰ ἴδια) and followed him (ἠκολουθήσαμέν σοι). This saying by the pragmatic leader of the disciples showed that Peter was concerned about himself and his fellow disciples. What was in it for them? Something similar can be found in Mark, chapter 10:26, and Matthew, chapter 19:27, but slightly different. Mark said that Peter began to complain to Jesus (Ἤρξατο λέγειν ὁ Πέτρος αὐτῷ). He said that he and the other disciples had left everything that they had (Ἰδοὺ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν πάντα). They were willing to follow Jesus (καὶ ἠκολουθήκαμέν σοι), but what was going to be their reward? In Matthew, Peter responded or complained to Jesus also like in Mark (Τότε ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος εἶπεν αὐτῷ). He said that he and the other disciples had left everything that they had (Ἰδοὺ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν πάντα), including their families. They were willing to follow Jesus (καὶ ἠκολουθήσαμέν σοι), but what was going to be their reward (τί ἄρα ἔσται ἡμῖν). Would they be left empty-handed? Are you worried about your life if you followed Jesus?
“Blessed are you
Who are hungry now!
You shall be satisfied.”
μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν, ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the hungry people now (οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν) would be blessed or happy (μακάριοι) and satisfied (ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε), using the second person plural. This is somewhat equivalent to Matthew, chapter 5:6, perhaps indicating that these beatitudes may be from the Q source. There Matthew said the happy, blessed, and fortunate ones (μακάριοι) were those who hungered and thirsted for righteousness (οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην). They would not go away empty handed. They would be satisfied or filled (ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσοντ). Isaiah, chapter 55:1-2 had an invitation to those without money to come to drink and eat. They could have water, wine, milk and bread. They would enjoy themselves at this banquet. Matthew may have been referencing Psalm 107:4-9, where Yahweh had helped a small group of lost Israelites who were hungry and thirsty, while wandering in the desert. He satisfied their thirst and filled their hunger with good food. Thus, they gave thanks to Yahweh. So too, those who hungered and thirsted for righteousness, the right way of doing things, would be satisfied or filled with this righteousness. However, here Luke was talking about real hunger for food that would be satisfied. Luke is more concrete, less spiritual. You are poor and hungry, plain and simple. You would be blessed, fortunate, happy, and satisfied.
With good things.
He has sent
The rich away
πεινῶντας ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν καὶ πλουτοῦντας ἐξαπέστειλεν κενούς.
This canticle of Mary was modeled on that of Hannah in 1 Samuel, chapter 2:4, that praised Yahweh for her son the prophet Samuel. Luke had Mary elaborate on Hannah’s thought about how the mighty and the rich would stumble, but the low and the poor would succeed. Mary said that God had filled or satisfied the needy hungry people with good things (πεινῶντας ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν), while at the same time he had sent away (ἐξαπέστειλεν) the rich people (καὶ πλουτοῦντας) empty handed (κενούς.). God was going to reverse the human order of rich and poor as far as food was concerned. The rich would have nothing, but the poor would be satisfied.
“But they seized
They beat him.
They sent him away
καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν ἔδειραν καὶ ἀπέστειλαν κενόν.
This beating of the slave by the wicked tenants can be found somewhat similar in Matthew, chapter 21:35, and Luke, chapter 20:10, but there was only one slave here and in Luke, instead of the 3 different slaves, as in Matthew. Mark said that these tenant farmers seized this slave (καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν). They beat him (ἔδειραν). Then they sent him away empty-handed (καὶ ἀπέστειλαν κενόν). These tenant farmers were not very nice.
To say to Jesus.
We have left everything.
We have followed you.’”
Ἤρξατο λέγειν ὁ Πέτρος αὐτῷ Ἰδοὺ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν πάντα καὶ ἠκολουθήκαμέν σοι.
This saying by the pragmatic leader of the disciples showed that Peter was concerned about himself and his fellow disciples. What was in for them? Something similar can be found in Matthew, chapter 19:27, and Luke, chapter 18:28, almost word for word. Mark said that Peter began to complain to Jesus (Ἤρξατο λέγειν ὁ Πέτρος αὐτῷ). He said that he and the other disciples had left everything that he had (Ἰδοὺ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν πάντα). They were willing to follow Jesus (καὶ ἠκολουθήκαμέν σοι), but what was going to be their reward? Would they be left empty-handed?