Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus also mentioned Lot from Genesis, chapter 19. Jesus said likewise, just as it was in the days of Lot (ὁμοίως καθὼς ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Λώτ), they were eating (ἤσθιον), drinking (ἔπινον), buying (ἠγόραζον), selling (ἐπώλουν), planting (ἐφύτευον), and building (ἐφύτευον). This was much the same as the statement about Noah. At the time of Lot, the nephew of Abraham, they too were carrying on normal activities. In other words, people assume that nothing will happen to them. What do you know about Lot?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that at the time of Noah, they were eating (ἤσθιον) and drinking (ἔπινον). They were marrying (ἐγάμουν) and being given in marriage (ἐγαμίζοντο), until the day Noah entered the ark (ἄχρι ἧς ἡμέρας εἰσῆλθεν Νῶε εἰς τὴν κιβωτόν). The flood came (καὶ ἦλθεν ὁ κατακλυσμὸς). It destroyed all of them (καὶ ἀπώλεσεν πάντας). There was something similar, at times almost word for word, in Matthew, chapter 24:38-39, thus indicating a Q source. Jesus said, via Matthew, that they were eating (τρώγοντες), drinking (καὶ πίνοντες), marrying (γαμοῦντες), and giving in marriage (καὶ γαμίζοντες) right up until the day when Noah entered the ark (ἄχρι ἧς ἡμέρας εἰσῆλθεν Νῶε εἰς τὴν κιβωτόν). They knew nothing (καὶ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν) until the flood came (ἦλθεν ὁ κατακλυσμὸς) and swept them all away (καὶ ἦρεν ἅπαντας). There was a slightly different ending, but the comparison with Noah is the same in both Luke and Matthew. How important is the flood at the time of Noah to your life?
Luke said that a woman who was a sinner (καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ…ἁμαρτωλός) in that town (ἦν ἐν τῇ πόλει) learned or knew (καὶ ἐπιγνοῦσα) that Jesus was reclining at table in the Pharisee’s house (ὅτι κατάκειται ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ τοῦ Φαρισαίου). She brought an alabaster bottle of oil, ointment, or Myron (κομίσασα ἀλάβαστρον μύρου). Her specific sin was not mentioned here, but she might have been a prostitute, since she was publically known in the town as a sinner by many of those there at this dinner party. However, she brought an elegant alabaster bottle of oil or Myron. There was a similar story with a sinning woman coming with a jar of oil in Matthew, chapter 26:6, Mark, chapter 14:3, and John, chapter 12:1, but within a different context, at Bethany and nearly right before the crucifixion of Jesus. John identified this woman as Mary, the sister of Lazarus. Some have identified this sinning woman as Mary Magdalene. Here Jesus was at the house of a Pharisee, when this woman also brought an alabaster oil bottle. Do you know any sinning women?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the Son of Man came (ἐλήλυθεν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) eating (ἐσθίων) and drinking (καὶ πίνων). However, they said that he was a glutton (καὶ λέγετε Ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος φάγος), a drunkard (καὶ οἰνοπότης), and a friend of tax collectors and sinners (φίλος τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν). Matthew, chapter 11:19, had a similar statement, indicating a possible common Q source. They called the Son of Man, Jesus, a glutton and a drunkard, because he was eating and drinking. The Son of Man was also considered a friend or lover to tax collectors and sinners. In other words, whether you ate or drank, it did not matter, they would find some fault in whatever John or Jesus did. Do you like to eat and drink and hang out with sinners?
Luke indicated that Jesus took on the complaints against John the Baptist and himself. Jesus said that John the Baptist came (ἐλήλυθεν γὰρ Ἰωάνης ὁ Βαπτιστὴς) eating no bread (μὴ ἐσθίων ἄρτον) and drinking no wine (μήτε πίνων οἶνον), fasting. Yet they still said that he had a demon (καὶ λέγετε Δαιμόνιον ἔχει). Matthew, chapter 11:18, had a similar statement, indicating a possible common Q source. They said that John had a demon, because he would not eat bread or drink wine. He was an ascetic, fasting a lot, with a simple sparse lifestyle, yet they considered him demonic. Do you have an ascetic lifestyle?
Matthew, chapter 5:44 was more forceful when Jesus said that they were to love their enemies (ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν) and even pray for those who were persecuting them. Here Luke indicated that Jesus said that they were to love their enemies (πλὴν ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν), as in Matthew. However, they were to do good (καὶ ἀγαθοποιεῖτε). They were expected to lend to others (καὶ δανίζετε), expecting nothing in return (μηδὲν ἀπελπίζοντες). This was based on Exodus, chapter 22:25 that if they lent money, they should not charge interest to the poor. Leviticus, chapter 25:27, said that if any of their relatives fall into difficulties and become dependent on them, they should support them as though they were resident aliens. They were not to take interest or profit from them while they are living and eating in their house. Yahweh would provide. Their reward would be great (καὶ ἔσται ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολύς) because they would be children of the Most-High God (καὶ ἔσεσθε υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου). Have you ever lent money to relatives?
Luke followed the order of Mark, chapter 2:23, while Matthew, chapter 12:1, has this incident of plucking grain on the Sabbath later in his work. Luke said that on one Sabbath day (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν σαββάτῳ), while Jesus was going through some grain fields (διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν διὰ σπορίμων), his disciples plucked some heads of grain (καὶ ἔτιλλον οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ). This is the only use of the word “σπορίμων” in all of the biblical literature. All three synoptics used this word that meant a sown field or a grain field, so that they may have copied it from Mark. This is also the only time that the word “ἔτιλλον, plucking” appears in its various forms by the three synoptics. Once again, Mark may have the source for this word. The disciples rubbed these grains in their hands (ψώχοντες ταῖς χερσίν) and ate the heads of these grains (καὶ ἤσθιον τοὺς στάχυας). In Matthew and Luke, the disciples ended up eating the grain, but Mark did not explicitly mention that. Matthew was the only one to say that the disciples were hungry, but that may be presumed in the other 2 accounts. This leisurely Sabbath walk through the grain fields set up the problem of plucking grain on the Sabbath.
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:28, but Matthew added “the forgiveness of sins” at the end. Luke, chapter 22:20, has a blessing cup before the bread and one after the bread and the supper. Paul spoke about a “new covenant” in I Corinthians, chapter 11:25. In John, chapter 13:53-58, Jesus was preaching about eating and drinking the body and blood of the Son of Man, since there was no institution narrative. Mark indicated that Jesus said to them (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) that this was his blood of the covenant (Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης), that was to be poured out for many people (τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον ὑπὲρ πολλῶ). This blood poured out for many may be an allusion to Isaiah, chapter 53:12. This blessing of the wine had a more elaborate narrative than the bread. However, both would become part of the new developing Christian Eucharistic Communion worship service. Notice that Mark has this statement about the blood of Jesus after they had already drunk the cup. The same could be implied from Matthew also.
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:27, and similar in Luke, chapter 22:17, but there it preceded the blessing of the bread. Paul used almost the same wording in I Corinthians, chapter 11:25. John, chapter 6:53-58, had Jesus preaching about eating and drinking the body and blood of the Son of Man. Matthew and Mark agree that Jesus took a drinking cup (καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον), assuming this cup was filled with wine. After giving thanks or eucharistizing it (εὐχαριστήσας), Jesus gave them this drinking cup (ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς). Instead of telling them to drink from this cup, as in Matthew, Mark simply said that all of them drank from it (καὶ ἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες). This new developing Christian Eucharistic worship service used the Greek word “εὐχαριστήσας (giving thanks)” as it became the name of the Last Supper remembrance event.
This is almost word for word in Mathew, chapter 26:26, but in Luke, chapter 22:19, it has a little more elaboration. Paul used almost the same wording in I Corinthians, chapter 11:23-24. In John, chapter 6:35-58, Jesus was preaching about eating the flesh of the Son of Man, the bread of life, so that he does not have a Last Supper institution narrative. Mark said that while they were eating (Καὶ ἐσθιόντων αὐτῶν) the Passover meal, Jesus took a loaf of bread (λαβὼν ἄρτον). He spoke the blessing or blessed it (εὐλογήσας). He broke it into pieces (ἔκλασεν). Then he gave it to them (καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς). He said (καὶ εἶπεν) that they should take (Λάβετε) this bread, because it was his body (τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου). There was no mention of eating it here, as in Matthew. This Eucharistic institution narrative may already have been in this stylized form at the time of the writing of this gospel. There was no specific indication whether this was leavened or unleavened bread, just a loaf of bread. However, if it was a Passover meal on the feast of the Unleavened Bread, the evident assumption would be that it was unleavened or “matzah” bread. Clearly, this institution narrative has had a profound effect on further Christian Eucharistic sacramental theological development.