Bethany (Lk 19:29-19:29)

“When Jesus

Drew near

To Bethphage

And Bethany,

At the place

Called

The Mount of Olives,

He sent

Two of the disciples.”

 

Καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἤγγισεν εἰς Βηθφαγὴ καὶ Βηθανίαν πρὸς τὸ ὄρος τὸ καλούμενον Ἐλαιῶν, ἀπέστειλεν δύο τῶν μαθητῶν

 

Luke said that Jesus drew near to Bethphage (Καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἤγγισεν εἰς Βηθφαγὴ), a village on the way from Jericho to Jerusalem, and Bethany (καὶ Βηθανίαν), about a mile and a half east of Jerusalem, near the place called the Mount of Olives (πρὸς τὸ ὄρος τὸ καλούμενον Ἐλαιῶν), overlooking the Kidron Valley.  Jesus sent out 2 of his disciples (ἀπέστειλεν δύο τῶν μαθητῶν).  Both Matthew, chapter 21:1, and Mark, chapter 11:1, are almost word for word to what is here.  Mark said that when they were approaching near to Jerusalem (Καὶ ὅτε ἐγγίζουσιν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα), Jesus then sent out 2 disciples (ἀποστέλλει δύο τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ).  They were at Bethphage (εἰς Βηθφαγὴ) and Bethany (καὶ Βηθανίαν), near the Mount of Olives (πρὸς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν), not far from Jerusalem.  Matthew said that when they got near to Jerusalem (Καὶ ὅτε ἤγγισαν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα), Jesus then sent out 2 disciples (τότε Ἰησοῦς ἀπέστειλεν δύο μαθητὰς).  They were at Bethphage (καὶ ἦλθον εἰς Βηθφαγὴ), near the Mount of Olives (εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν).  Matthew did not mention Bethany.  John had nothing about this at all.  Have you ever been to Jerusalem?

The Son of Man will be like lightning (Lk 17:24-17:24)

“As the lightning

Flashes

And lights up

The sky

From one side

To the other,

So will the Son of man

Be in his day.”

 

ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἀστράπτουσα ἐκ τῆς ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰς τὴν ὑπ’ οὐρανὸν λάμπει, οὕτως ἔσται ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ αὐτοῦ.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that as the lightning flashes (ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἀστράπτουσα) and lights up the sky (ἐκ τῆς ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν) from one side of the sky to the other (εἰς τὴν ὑπ’ οὐρανὸν λάμπει), so will the Son of man be (οὕτως ἔσται ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) in his day (ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ αὐτοῦ).  Luke was the only Greek biblical writer to use the word ἀστράπτουσα that means to lighten and flash forth.  There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:27, indicating a Q source, about the Son of Man coming like lightening, but in a more succinct way.  In Matthew, Jesus said that as the lightning came from the east (ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἐξέρχεται ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν) but flashed or shined in the west (καὶ φαίνεται ἕως δυσμῶν), so the Parousia or the second coming of the Son of Man would happen (οὕτως ἔσται ἡ παρουσία τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου).  Wherever the corpse was (ὅπου ἐὰν ᾖ τὸ πτῶμα), there the vultures gathered (ἐκεῖ συναχθήσονται οἱ ἀετοί).  The Son of Man was a clear reference to Jesus in his return, the Parousia, who would return like a flash of lightening.  The vultures or eagles were a reference to the Roman soldiers with their eagle symbols.  There was nothing about the corpses and the eagles or vultures here in Luke, just the lightning flash.  However, later in this chapter, verse 37, there was a mention of the corpses and these vultures.  Are you afraid of lightning?

They will come from all directions (Lk 13:29-13:29)

“People will come

From east

And west,

From north

And south.

They will eat

In the kingdom of God.”

 

καὶ ἥξουσιν ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν καὶ ἀπὸ βορρᾶ καὶ νότου, καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that people would come from (καὶ ἥξουσιν ἀπὸ) the east (ἀνατολῶν), the west (καὶ δυσμῶν), the north (καὶ ἀπὸ βορρᾶ), and the south (καὶ νότου).  They would recline and eat (καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται) in the kingdom of God (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ).  They would come from everywhere.  This is somewhat similar to Matthew, chapter 8:11, perhaps a Q source, who had Jesus say that many people would come from the east and the west (ὅτι πολλοὶ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν ἥξουσιν), but not the north or the south, to recline at table (καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται) during the Messianic feast with the 3 great Hebrew Jewish leaders, Abraham (μετὰ Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ) in the kingdom of the heavens (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν).  Do you think that you will have a place at the Messianic feast?

You will weep! (Lk 13:28-13:28)

“There will be

Weeping

And gnashing

Of teeth,

When you see

Abraham,

Isaac,

And Jacob,

With all the prophets,

In the kingdom of God.

However,

You yourselves

Will be thrown out.”

 

ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων, ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακὼβ καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὑμᾶς δὲ ἐκβαλλομένους ἔξω.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that there would be weeping (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς) and gnashing or grinding of teeth (καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων), when they would see (ὅταν ὄψησθε) Abraham (Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ), with all the prophets (καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας) in the kingdom of God (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ).  However, they would be thrown out (ὑμᾶς δὲ ἐκβαλλομένους ἔξω).  This saying about the failure of the sons of Abraham is similar to Matthew, chapter 8:11-12, perhaps a Q source with its anti-Jewish bias.  Matthew had this saying of Jesus begin with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν).  Many people would come from the east and the west (ὅτι πολλοὶ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν ἥξουσιν) to recline at table (καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται) during the Messianic feast with the 3 great Hebrew Jewish leaders, Abraham (μετὰ Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ) in the kingdom of heaven (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν).  However, the sons or the heirs of the kingdom (οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας) would be thrown out into the outer darkness (ἐκβληθήσονται εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον), where there would be weeping, crying, or lamenting (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς) with the gnashing or grinding of teeth (καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων).  These were the traditional ways or signs to show anger and frustration.  In this a reference to the end times damnation?  Have you ever been angry or frustrated?

The short ending of Mark (Mk 16:9-16:9)

“These women

Briefly

And promptly told

Those around Peter

All that had been

Instructed to them.

Afterward,

Jesus himself

Sent out

Through them,

From east to west,

The sacred

And imperishable proclamation

Of eternal salvation.”

Πάντα δὲ τὰ παρηγγελμένα τοῖς περὶ τὸν Πέτρον συντόμως ἐξήγγειλαν. Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς καὶ ἄχρι δύσεως ἐξαπέστειλεν δι’ αὐτῶν τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ ἄφθαρτον κήρυγμα τῆς αἰωνίου σωτηρίας

The oldest know Latin text was the Codex Bobiensis, from the Bobbio monastery in northern Italy, during the 4th or 5th century CE.  Obviously, this was a later edition, certainly not in the 1st or 2nd century after Jesus.  Nevertheless, it was an attempt to fix up the last sentence of the preceding verse or the original ending of Mark.  This was an attempt to put Peter in charge of a universal church that was present at the time of the original writing of this gospel.  This text says that the women at the tomb reported to the people around Peter briefly and promptly (τοῖς περὶ τὸν Πέτρον συντόμως ἐξήγγειλαν) all that had been instructed or commanded to them (Πάντα δὲ τὰ παρηγγελμένα) at the tomb.  Afterward, Jesus himself, without saying how, sent the followers of Jesus out from east to west (Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς καὶ ἄχρι δύσεως ἐξαπέστειλεν δι’ αὐτῶν) to proclaim a sacred and imperishable eternal salvation (τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ ἄφθαρτον κήρυγμα τῆς αἰωνίου σωτηρίας).  This was an attempt to show why the Christians were all over the place.

Golgotha (Mk 15:22-15:22)

“Then they brought Jesus

To the place

Called Golgotha.

This means

The place of the skull.”

 

καὶ φέρουσιν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸν Γολγοθᾶν τόπον, ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενος Κρανίου τόπος.

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 27:33.  In Luke, chapter 23:33, the place was simple called “The Skull,” with no mention of Golgotha, while in John, chapter 19:17, it was also called “The Place of the Skull,” as the translation of the Hebrew word Golgotha.  Mark said that they brought Jesus to this Golgotha place (καὶ φέρουσιν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸν Γολγοθᾶν τόπον).  He said that this could be translated (ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενος) as “The Place of the skull (Κρανίου τόπος).”   Golgotha apparently was a transliteration of the Aramaic word for skull.  The exact location of this place near Jerusalem is not known, but the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is the traditional place for Calvary, based on the Latin translation of Golgotha, probably a little east of Jerusalem.

They sung a hymn (Mk 14:26-14:26)

“When they had sung

The hymn,

They went out

To the Mount of Olives.”

 

Καὶ ὑμνήσαντες ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν.

 

This is exactly word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:30, and similar in Luke, chapter 22:39.  Both Matthew and Mark agree that after they had sung the praise hymns (Καὶ ὑμνήσαντες), they went out to the hill or the Mount of Olives (ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν).  The hymns that they would have sung would be the Hallel Psalms 115-118, that were usually associated with the Passover service.  The Mount of Olives was about 2 miles east of the old city of Jerusalem, where many people had been buried for thousands of years.  Thus, when Jesus and his 12 disciples had finished with their Passover hymn singing of the Hallel psalms, they went outside the city about a 2 mile walk to this graveyard where there was a hill with a lot of olive trees on it.