Appointed seventy others.
He sent them
On ahead of him,
Into every town
Where he himself
Intended to go.”
Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἀνέδειξεν ὁ Κύριος ἑτέρους ἑβδομήκοντα, καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς ἀνὰ δύο πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ εἰς πᾶσαν πόλιν καὶ τόπον οὗ ἤμελλεν αὐτὸς ἔρχεσθαι.
Luke uniquely spoke about these 70 disciples. He said that after these comments (Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα) about the demands of discipleship, the Lord (ὁ Κύριος), not Jesus, appointed 70 others disciples (ἀνέδειξεν ἑτέρους ἑβδομήκοντα), who were not the 12 apostles. He sent them on ahead of him or his face (πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ), in pairs (καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς ἀνὰ δύο), into every town and place (εἰς πᾶσαν πόλιν καὶ τόπον) where he himself intended to go (οὗ ἤμελλεν αὐτὸς ἔρχεσθαι). They were to be his front men or advance people. There was no mention of these 70 disciples in the other gospel stories, only here in Luke. This group of 70 was reminiscent of the elders with Moses in Numbers, chapter 11:24-25, where Moses gathered the 70 elders of the people around the tent. Then Yahweh took some of the Spirit that was upon him and put it upon the 70 elders. These elders temporarily prophesied. This sharing of power may have helped Moses, since God gave some of the power of his spirit to these 70 elders. Thus, the Jerusalem Jewish Sanhedrin had 70 members. These 70 missionaries of Jesus went out in pairs, two by two, a common practice in the early Church. Mark, chapter 6:7, said that Jesus sent out his 12 apostles in pairs, two by two, also. Interesting enough, the activities of these 70 missionaries seem to be much like the 12 apostles as described earlier in chapter 9:2-4. Have you ever been on a missionary expedition?
African Christians put emphasis on creation and deliverance from hardship, while European Christians put emphasis on sin and salvation. These differences show up in death rituals and funerals. The early Church suffered political persecution. Freedom from slavery saw redemption as the main form of freedom. The early Medieval Church (4th-11th centuries) was more concerned about freedom from the power of the devil after Augustine had emphasized the concept of original sin. The early Scholastic theologians like Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) put less emphasis on the ransom from the devil. Adam had disobeyed and dishonored God. Christ has saved us by being the second Adam, the so-called satisfaction theory. Order and honor were more important. The Third world today sees redemption as something else. Christian redemption is the same reality, but there are different interpretations of what it means to be redeemed.
The Q source is a hypothetical written or oral collection of Jesus’ sayings that was common to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke but not in the Gospel of Mark. This Q source included many parables and the beatitudes. According to this hypothesis, these sayings of Jesus was taken from the early Church’s oral tradition. In the 19th century, some New Testament scholars favored Mark as the first written gospel. They assumed that that the authors of Matthew and Luke had used the Gospel of Mark. However, there were large sections of the gospels of Luke and Matthew that were not found in Mark. They suggested that neither gospel drew upon each other, but from a second common source, termed Q, from the German word Quelle. Many scholars have tried to reconstruct this lost source with limited success. Another group of scholars thought that the 20th century discovered Gospel of Thomas might be that source. Others have maintained that this similarity also demanded a written rather than an oral document. Did Q even predate the Gospel of Mark? Another question is whether Luke used Matthew instead of having a common source, the older hypothesis.