Just like Lot (Lk 17:28-17:28)

“Likewise,

Just as it was

In the days

Of Lot.

They were eating.

They were drinking.

They were buying.

They were selling.

They were planting.

They were building.”

 

ὁμοίως καθὼς ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Λώτ· ἤσθιον, ἔπινον, ἠγόραζον, ἐπώλουν, ἐφύτευον, ᾠκοδόμουν

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus also mentioned Lot from Genesis, chapter 19.  Jesus said likewise, just as it was in the days of Lot (ὁμοίως καθὼς ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Λώτ), they were eating (ἤσθιον), drinking (ἔπινον), buying (ἠγόραζον), selling (ἐπώλουν), planting (ἐφύτευον), and building (ἐφύτευον).  This was much the same as the statement about Noah.  At the time of Lot, the nephew of Abraham, they too were carrying on normal activities.  In other words, people assume that nothing will happen to them.  What do you know about Lot?

The flood destroyed them all (Lk 17:27-17:27)

“They were

Eating

And drinking.

They were marrying

And being given

In marriage,

Until the day

Noah entered the ark.

The flood came.

It destroyed all of them.”

 

ἤσθιον, ἔπινον, ἐγάμουν, ἐγαμίζοντο, ἄχρι ἧς ἡμέρας εἰσῆλθεν Νῶε εἰς τὴν κιβωτόν, καὶ ἦλθεν ὁ κατακλυσμὸς καὶ ἀπώλεσεν πάντας.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that at the time of Noah, they were eating (ἤσθιον) and drinking (ἔπινον).  They were marrying (ἐγάμουν) and being given in marriage (ἐγαμίζοντο), until the day Noah entered the ark (ἄχρι ἧς ἡμέρας εἰσῆλθεν Νῶε εἰς τὴν κιβωτόν).  The flood came (καὶ ἦλθεν ὁ κατακλυσμὸς).  It destroyed all of them (καὶ ἀπώλεσεν πάντας).  There was something similar, at times almost word for word, in Matthew, chapter 24:38-39, thus indicating a Q source.  Jesus said, via Matthew, that they were eating (τρώγοντες), drinking (καὶ πίνοντες), marrying (γαμοῦντες), and giving in marriage (καὶ γαμίζοντες) right up until the day when Noah entered the ark (ἄχρι ἧς ἡμέρας εἰσῆλθεν Νῶε εἰς τὴν κιβωτόν).  They knew nothing (καὶ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν) until the flood came (ἦλθεν ὁ κατακλυσμὸς) and swept them all away (καὶ ἦρεν ἅπαντας).  There was a slightly different ending, but the comparison with Noah is the same in both Luke and Matthew.  How important is the flood at the time of Noah to your life?

The Son of Man (Lk 7:34-7:34)

“The Son of Man

Has come

Eating

And drinking.

Yet you say.

‘Look!

A glutton!

Look!

A drunkard!

Look!

A friend

Of tax collectors

And sinners!’”

 

ἐλήλυθεν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐσθίων καὶ πίνων, καὶ λέγετε Ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος φάγος καὶ οἰνοπότης, φίλος τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the Son of Man came (ἐλήλυθεν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) eating (ἐσθίων) and drinking (καὶ πίνων).  However, they said that he was a glutton (καὶ λέγετε Ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος φάγος), a drunkard (καὶ οἰνοπότης), and a friend of tax collectors and sinners (φίλος τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν).  Matthew, chapter 11:19, had a similar statement, indicating a possible common Q source.  They called the Son of Man, Jesus, a glutton and a drunkard, because he was eating and drinking.  The Son of Man was also considered a friend or lover to tax collectors and sinners.  In other words, whether you ate or drank, it did not matter, they would find some fault in whatever John or Jesus did.  Do you like to eat and drink and hang out with sinners?

John the Baptist (Lk 7:33-7:33)

“John the Baptist

Has come

Eating no bread

And drinking no wine.

Yet you say.

‘He has a demon.’”

 

ἐλήλυθεν γὰρ Ἰωάνης ὁ Βαπτιστὴς μὴ ἐσθίων ἄρτον μήτε πίνων οἶνον, καὶ λέγετε Δαιμόνιον ἔχει.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus took on the complaints against John the Baptist and himself.  Jesus said that John the Baptist came (ἐλήλυθεν γὰρ Ἰωάνης ὁ Βαπτιστὴς) eating no bread (μὴ ἐσθίων ἄρτον) and drinking no wine (μήτε πίνων οἶνον), fasting.  Yet they still said that he had a demon (καὶ λέγετε Δαιμόνιον ἔχει).  Matthew, chapter 11:18, had a similar statement, indicating a possible common Q source.  They said that John had a demon, because he would not eat bread or drink wine.  He was an ascetic, fasting a lot, with a simple sparse lifestyle, yet they considered him demonic.  Do you have an ascetic lifestyle?

The new and old wine (Lk 5:38-5:39)

“But new wine

Must be put into

Fresh wineskins.

No one,

After drinking old wine

Desires new wine.

But he says.

‘The old wine

Is good.’”

 

ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινοὺς βλητέον.

καὶ οὐδεὶς πιὼν παλαιὸν θέλει νέον· λέγει γάρ Ὁ παλαιὸς χρηστός ἐστιν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that new wine (ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον) must be put into fresh, new, or unused wineskins (εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινοὺς βλητέον).  No one, after drinking old wine (καὶ οὐδεὶς πιὼν παλαιὸν), desires new wine (θέλει νέον).  But he says (λέγει γάρ) that the old wine was good (Ὁ παλαιὸς χρηστός ἐστιν).  Interesting enough, Luke has the first verse like Mark, chapter 2:22, and Matthew, chapter 9:17, but then he uniquely added that that old wine was good because people did not like new wine.  Both Mark and Matthew said that new wine should be poured into fresh or new wineskin leather pouches.  Thus, both the wine and the wineskins would be preserved.  They seem to be saying not to mix up the new with the old, since they are incompatible.  Here Luke said that the old was better, when most of the teaching was about the renewal of the old ways.

The last breath (Mk 15:37-15:37)

“Then Jesus

Gave a loud cry.

He breathed his last.”

 

ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀφεὶς φωνὴν μεγάλην ἐξέπνευσεν.

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 27:50.  In Luke, chapter 23:46, Jesus cried out with a loud voice saying that he was commending his spirit into the hands of his Father.  In John, chapter 19:30, Jesus said that it was finished, after drinking the sour wine.  Mark has the simple comment that Jesus cried out with a loud voice again (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀφεὶς φωνὴν μεγάλην).  Then Jesus breathed his last breath (ἐξέπνευσεν0.  Jesus had died on the cross.

This is my blood (Mk 14:24-14:24)

“Jesus said to them.

‘This is my blood

Of the covenant.

It is poured out

For many.’”

 

καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον ὑπὲρ πολλῶ

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:28, but Matthew added “the forgiveness of sins” at the end.  Luke, chapter 22:20, has a blessing cup before the bread and one after the bread and the supper.  Paul spoke about a “new covenant” in I Corinthians, chapter 11:25.  In John, chapter 13:53-58, Jesus was preaching about eating and drinking the body and blood of the Son of Man, since there was no institution narrative.  Mark indicated that Jesus said to them (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) that this was his blood of the covenant (Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης), that was to be poured out for many people (τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον ὑπὲρ πολλῶ).  This blood poured out for many may be an allusion to Isaiah, chapter 53:12.  This blessing of the wine had a more elaborate narrative than the bread.  However, both would become part of the new developing Christian Eucharistic Communion worship service.  Notice that Mark has this statement about the blood of Jesus after they had already drunk the cup.  The same could be implied from Matthew also.

They drank from the cup (Mk 14:23-14:23)

“Then Jesus took

A cup.

After giving thanks,

He gave it

To them.

All of them

Drank from it.”

 

καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:27, and similar in Luke, chapter 22:17, but there it preceded the blessing of the bread.  Paul used almost the same wording in I Corinthians, chapter 11:25.  John, chapter 6:53-58, had Jesus preaching about eating and drinking the body and blood of the Son of Man.  Matthew and Mark agree that Jesus took a drinking cup (καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον), assuming this cup was filled with wine.  After giving thanks or eucharistizing it (εὐχαριστήσας), Jesus gave them this drinking cup (ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς).  Instead of telling them to drink from this cup, as in Matthew, Mark simply said that all of them drank from it (καὶ ἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες).  This new developing Christian Eucharistic worship service used the Greek word “εὐχαριστήσας (giving thanks)” as it became the name of the Last Supper remembrance event.

 

Fourth narrative

The fourth narrative section revealed the increasing opposition to Jesus.  Thus, his disciples had to prepare for his absence.  These instructions emphasized responsibility and humility.  Simon was renamed Peter, the rock upon which he was going to build his church, especially the mystery of the kingdom of heaven.

While Jesus was preaching in the various towns, John the Baptist was put in prison.  The disciples of John questioned Jesus and Jesus responded.  Jesus then asked questions about John.  Was John more than a prophet?  Then Matthew had a series of Old Testament scriptural quotations about John.  How great was John the Baptist?  Was John Elijah?

Jesus warned that this was a childish generation that was indifferent as they kept on eating and drinking, as if nothing important was happening.  Jesus was against the various Galilean cities and towns, especially Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum.  Jesus explained that there were hidden things from the wise ones, especially the relationship of the Father with the Son, but that the disciples had an easy yoke to bear.

Next came the question of eating on the Sabbath.  The Pharisees reacted against Jesus, but he used the example of David and the priests in the Temple to respond to them.  God was the Lord of the Sabbath.  Thus, when Jesus went into the synagogue, they asked him if he would heal anyone on the Sabbath?  Jesus compared sheep to human beings and then healed the man’s hand.  Thus, the Pharisees conspired against Jesus, while he took a low profile.

Jesus said that the fulfillment of the prophesy of Isaiah was at hand in the servant of Yahweh.  Jesus cured the blind and mute man as the crowds were amazed.  However, the Pharisees compared Jesus to Beelzebul, the devil.  Jesus responded that a divided kingdom would not stand.  The Spirit of God was with Jesus.  The bandits tied up people before stealing from them.  You were either for or against Jesus.  They should be aware of the sin against the Holy Spirit.

Jesus then issued a series of sayings about a tree and its fruit.  He compared the Pharisees to a brood of vipers.  There could be good and bad treasures.  Words would either save or condemn them.

Jesus told them about the sign for this evil generation that was always seeking signs.  He was only going to give them the sign of Jonah.  Notice how the men of Nineveh reacted.  The Queen of Sheba brought gifts to Solomon.  The unclean spirit would return with other evil spirits.  The relatives of Jesus, his mother and brothers showed up, but Jesus said that he had a new family.

Then Jesus spoke in parables siting in a boat by the sea.  There was the parable of the sower with his lost seeds, where only a few of the seeds fell on good soil.  His disciples wanted to know why he was speaking in parables, so that Jesus explained why he used parables.  Once again, he referred to a prophecy of Isaiah.  He explained about the seeds on the rocky ground and the seeds among the thorns.  Finally, he explained the meaning of the seeds on good ground or path since they were the blessed ones.

Then there was the parable about the weeds among the wheat.  The slaves let the weeds grow and then separated them at harvest time.  There were other parables about the mustard seed and the yeast.  Jesus spoke to the crowds in parables, but he explained these parables to his disciples, especially the sower, the field, and the seeds.  He explained the enemy and the burning of the weeds.  The punishment for the weeds came at the harvest end times.  Thus, the reward for the righteous will be at the end times.

The kingdom of heaven was like a treasure, like pearls, and like a fishing net.  Jesus explained the parables because the disciples did not understand them.  They were like new and old treasures.

Jesus was an astonishment in his own home town.  They all knew the family of Jesus.  Thus, he was a prophet without honor in his own country.

Herod thought that Jesus was a resurrected John the Baptist, but he was afraid of John the Baptist.  At his birthday party, Herod granted the wish to have the head of John the Baptist on a platter.  Meanwhile, John the Baptist’s disciples buried him.

Jesus was worried as he was healing the sick people.  The disciples complained about the crowds, so that Jesus told them to give them something to eat.  However, they only had five loaves and two fish.  Then Jesus blessed the five loaves of bread and distributed them to the crowd.  There were even leftovers from this crowd of five thousand people.

The disciples left in a boat, so that Jesus prayed alone.  The boat was in the middle of the sea when Jesus walked on water to come to them.   Peter talked to Jesus and then attempted to walk on the water.  Jesus then saved Peter who recognized Jesus as the Son of God.  Then there were the healings at Gennesaret, where Jesus cured the sick.

The Pharisees from Jerusalem came to Jesus to ask him why his disciples did not wash their hands before eating.  Jesus responded by telling them to honor their parents since there was hypocrisy in their traditions.  He cited Isaiah about vain worship.  He told them to hear and understand.  They should watch what came out of their mouth rather than what went into their mouth as defilement.  The Pharisees were offended, but Jesus called them blind guides.  Peter wanted to understand more so that Jesus explained the mouth should speak from the heart.

Jesus went to the coastal cities of Tyre and Sidon where he met a Canaanite woman.  He said that he was only going to the lost sheep of Israel, but this Canaanite woman persistently asked for help.  Jesus refused again saying that he could not feed the dogs.  However, she responded that dogs eat crumbs from the table.  Jesus said that she had great faith and healed her.

As Jesus healed the crowds of people in the mountain near the Sea of Galilee, he had compassion for them.  Where will they get food?  His disciples said that they had seven loaves.  Jesus then gave thanks over them and distributed the bread to four thousand men as there was a second multiplication of bread loaves.

Jesus went to Magadan.  There the Pharisees asked for a sign from heaven.  Once again, Jesus said that there are weather signs, but he would only give this evil generation the sign of Jonah.

The disciples had forgotten to bring bread, but Jesus warned them about the yeast of the Pharisees.  He reprimanded his disciples for their lack of faith as he reminded them about the multiplication of the loaves of bread.  They should be worried about the Pharisees not food.

What was the role of Peter?  Jesus asked about the Son of Man as the disciples responded.  Then Jesus asked them about himself.  Peter gave a very positive response, so that Jesus rewarded him.  The Messianic secret was tied to the future of Jesus in this conversation between Peter and Jesus.  He would have to take up his cross if wanted to save his life because the Son of Man in his kingdom would be coming soon.

Jesus took three of his apostles up a mountain where he was transfigured before them.  Moses and Elijah appeared with him.  Peter wanted to set up three tents for them.  A voice from the cloud came as the three apostles adored him.  Jesus asked them to be silent about this.  What was the role of Elijah and John the Baptist?

An epileptic man knelt before Jesus that his disciples were unable to heal.  Jesus then healed him, so that his disciples wondered why they were unable to heal this epileptic?  Jesus spoke about the future of the Son of Man.  Should they pay the Temple tax?  Jesus responded that the son of the king did not pay taxes, but he told Peter to pay them anyway.

Finally, we have the ecclesiastical discourse about who is the greatest.  A child is the greatest because when you welcome a little child, you welcome Jesus.  They were not to cause children to sin.  They were not to tempt people.  It would be better to be maimed and blind than suffer eternal fire.  They were not to despise the little ones.  Jesus explained the parable of the lost sheep and fraternal correction.  What were you to do with a sinning brother.  Let him become a gentile, if he does not listen.  Common prayer was important so that they should gather in his name.  How often should they forgive?  The response was the seventy times seven.

Then there was the parable of the unforgiving servant slave.  The master settled accounts with servant slaves.  One owed ten thousand talents, so that the king forgave him his debt.  However, this servant slave would not forgive the debt of his fellow slaves, who were angry.  Thus, this unforgiving slave was tortured.  This parable explanation was simple, forgive your brothers.

Jesus dies (Mt 27:50-27:50)

“Then Jesus cried again

With a loud voice.

He breathed

His last breath.”

 

ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς πάλιν κράξας φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ἀφῆκεν τὸ πνεῦμα.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 15:37.  In Luke, chapter 23:46, Jesus cried out with a loud voice saying that he was commending his spirit into the hands of his Father.  In John, chapter 19:30, Jesus said that it was finished after drinking the sour wine.  Matthew has the simple comment that Jesus cried out with a loud voice again (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς πάλιν κράξας φωνῇ μεγάλῃ).  Jesus then gave up his spirit (ἀφῆκεν τὸ πνεῦμα) as he breathed his last breath.  Jesus had died on the cross.