The problem of the Sabbath (Lk 14:5-14:5)

“Then Jesus

Said to them.

‘If one of you

Has a child

Or an ox

That has fallen

Into a well,

Will you not

Immediately

Pull him out

On a Sabbath day?’”

 

καὶ πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν Τίνος ὑμῶν υἱὸς ἢ βοῦς εἰς φρέαρ πεσεῖται, καὶ οὐκ εὐθέως ἀνασπάσει αὐτὸν ἐν ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ σαββάτου;

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said to the lawyers and the Pharisees (καὶ πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν) that if anyone of them had a child or an ox (Τίνος ὑμῶν υἱὸς ἢ βοῦς) that had fallen into a well or pit (εἰς φρέαρ πεσεῖται), would they not immediately pull him out (καὶ οὐκ εὐθέως ἀνασπάσει αὐτὸν) even on a Sabbath day (ἐν ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ σαββάτου)?  Jesus turned the question of the Sabbath around.  He wondered what these lawyers and Pharisees would do if their son or their ox fell into a pit or well.  He pointed out that they would immediately pull him out of the well, no matter what day of the week it was.  Would you help someone in distress on Sunday?

The stressful baptism to come (Lk 12:50-12:50)

“I have a baptism

With which

To be baptized.

What stress

I am under,

Until it is completed!”  

 

βάπτισμα δὲ ἔχω βαπτισθῆναι, καὶ πῶς συνέχομαι ἕως ὅτου τελεσθῇ.  

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that he had a baptism (βάπτισμα δὲ ἔχω) with which he was to be baptized (βαπτισθῆναι).  He was under a lot of stress (καὶ πῶς συνέχομαι) until it was completed or finished (ἕως ὅτου τελεσθῇ).  This was one of the few times that Jesus mentioned anything about his stress or distress.  There is something similar to this in Mark, chapter 10:28, but slightly different.  There Jesus asked his disciples if they were able to drink the cup that he was about to drink.  The idea of a cup as suffering or the cup of wrath could be found among the major prophets.  Jesus then asked them if they were ready to be baptized with the baptism that he was going to undergo (ἢ τὸ βάπτισμα ὃ ἐγὼ βαπτίζομαι βαπτισθῆναι)?  This baptism was a form of suffering, probably a reference to his future passion and suffering of his death.  Do you consider baptism a time of stress?

Would Jesus heal on the Sabbath? (Lk 6:7-6:7)

“The Scribes

And the Pharisees

Watched Jesus

To see

Whether he would cure

On the Sabbath.

Thus,

They might find

An accusation

Against him.”

 

παρετηροῦντο δὲ αὐτὸν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι εἰ ἐν τῷ σαββάτῳ θεραπεύει, ἵνα εὕρωσιν κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ.

 

Luke said that the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the Pharisees (καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) were watching or closely observing Jesus (παρετηροῦντο δὲ αὐτὸν) to see whether he would cure or heal (θεραπεύει) this man’s hand on the Sabbath (εἰ ἐν τῷ σαββάτῳ).  Thus, they might find an accusation against him (ἵνα εὕρωσιν κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ).  Matthew, chapter 12:10, and Mark, chapter 3:2, are similar to this incident in Luke.  However, Matthew had the Pharisees confront Jesus with a question, while Luke followed Mark in saying that the Scribes and Pharisees were merely watching to see if Jesus would cure this man with the withered hand on the Sabbath.  Matthew said specifically that the Pharisees interrogated Jesus whether it was lawful to heal, cure, or serve anyone on the Sabbath.  They were trying to see if they could accuse Jesus of breaking the Sabbath.  Jewish law allowed people to help in cases of distress on the Sabbath.  Clearly, this was a trap question.

The bridegroom is here (Lk 5:34-5:34)

“Jesus said to them.

‘You cannot make

Wedding guests fast

While the bridegroom

Is with them.

Can you?’”

 

ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Μὴ δύνασθε τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος, ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετ’ αὐτῶν ἐστιν, ποιῆσαι νηστεῦσαι;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus asked them with a question (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς).  Would they ask the sons of the bridal chamber (Μὴ δύνασθε τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος,), the wedding guests, to fast (ποιῆσαι νηστεῦσαι), as long as the bridegroom was with them (ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετ’ αὐτῶν ἐστιν)?  Mark, chapter 2:20, and Matthew, chapter 9:15, are similar to Luke, so that Mark might be the source of this saying of Jesus.  Mark indicated that Jesus directly responded to the disciples of John, as he compared himself to a bridegroom.  Thus, the wedding guests were not able to mourn, while the bridegroom, Jesus, was with them.  Fasting was often associated with distress and mourning.  As long as Jesus, the bridegroom, was around them, they were not able or could not fast, because this was a time of joy and good news, not fasting.

They find Jesus on the third day (Lk 2:46-2:46)

“After three days,

They found him

In the Temple.

He was

Sitting among

The teachers,

Listening to them

And asking them questions.”

 

καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ ἡμέρας τρεῖς εὗρον αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ καθεζόμενον ἐν μέσῳ τῶν διδασκάλων καὶ ἀκούοντα αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπερωτῶντα αὐτούς·

 

Good news!  Luke said that Joseph and Mary found Jesus after 3 days (καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ ἡμέρας τρεῖς).  That probably means that he was found on the 3rd day since they traveled one day out and one day back on their journey.  These 3 days will play an important role in the resurrection story, because Jesus will rise from the dead after 3 days.  Thus, the distress of these parents will be like the distress of the disciples of Jesus after his death.  The parents of Jesus found him in the Temple (εὗρον αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ), just like the women who found the empty tomb on the 3rd day.  Jesus, the 12-year-old was sitting in the middle or among the Temple masters or teachers (καθεζόμενον ἐν μέσῳ τῶν διδασκάλων), experts in the Jewish religion and traditions.  He was both listening to them (καὶ ἀκούοντα αὐτῶν) and asking them questions (καὶ ἐπερωτῶντα αὐτούς).  Nothing had been mentioned about his prior schooling in Nazareth, if there was any.  Had he been trained at the local synagogue in Nazareth?

 

Why do we need witnesses? (Mk 14:63-14:63)

“Then the high priest

Tore his clothes.

He said.

‘Why do we still need

Witnesses?’”

 

ὁ δὲ ἀρχιερεὺς διαρρήξας τοὺς χιτῶνας αὐτοῦ λέγει Τί ἔτι χρείαν ἔχομεν μαρτύρων;

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:65.  In Luke, chapter 22:71, there is something similar, but there is nothing like this in John, chapter 18.  Mark said that the high priest tore his clothes (ὁ δὲ ἀρχιερεὺς διαρρήξας τοὺς χιτῶνας αὐτοῦ), generally a sign of mourning or distress.  He then said why did they still need any witnesses (λέγει τί ἔτι χρείαν ἔχομεν μαρτύρων)?  The trial was over.  Jesus was guilty as charged, since he admitted to being the Messiah.

Would Jesus heal on the Sabbath? (Mk 3:2-3:2)

“They watched him,

To see whether

He would cure him

On the Sabbath.

Thus,

They might accuse him.”

 

καὶ παρετήρουν αὐτὸν εἰ τοῖς σάββασιν θεραπεύσει αὐτόν, ἵνα κατηγορήσωσιν αὐτοῦ.

 

Matthew, chapter 12:10, and Luke, chapter 6:7, are similar to this incident in Mark.  However, Matthew had the Pharisees confront Jesus with a question, while Luke followed Mark in saying that the Scribes and Pharisees were watching to see if Jesus would cure this man with the withered hand on the Sabbath.  Mark said that the unnamed “they” were watching Jesus (καὶ παρετήρουν αὐτὸν) to see if he would cure the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath (εἰ τοῖς σάββασιν θεραπεύσει αὐτόν).  Then they would accuse Jesus (ἵνα κατηγορήσωσιν αὐτοῦ). They were trying to see if they could charge Jesus of breaking the Sabbath.  However, Jewish law allowed people to help in cases of distress on the Sabbath.