Luke uniquely said here that the Sadducees no longer dared to ask him another question (οὐκέτι γὰρ ἐτόλμων ἐπερωτᾶν αὐτὸν οὐδέν). Case closed. Time to move on to a new subject. This complete victory for Jesus in this discussion about the resurrection can only be found here in Luke. Do you stop asking questions when you are satisfied?
Luke said that some Sadducees (τινες τῶν Σαδδουκαίων), those who say that there is no resurrection (οἱ ἀντιλέγοντες ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι), approached Jesus (Προσελθόντες δέ). They questioned him (ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν). These Sadducees were another Jewish aristocratic group that was tied to the Temple. However, they did not believe in the bodily resurrection, like the Pharisees did. They said that there was no resurrection of the dead. Matthew, chapter 22:23, and Mark, chapter 12:18, are similar to this statement in Luke. Mark said that some Sadducees came to Jesus (Καὶ ἔρχονται Σαδδουκαῖοι πρὸς αὐτόν). They said that there was no resurrection of the dead (οἵτινες λέγουσιν ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι). They too began to question Jesus (καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν λέγοντες). Only Matthew had this explicitly happen on the same day (Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ) as the discussion about the Roman coin. However, the other two gospel stories have it follow the discussion about the role of Caesar. Some Sadducees came to Jesus (προσῆλθον αὐτῷ Σαδδουκαῖοι). They did not believe in the bodily resurrection, since they said that there was no resurrection (λέγοντες μὴ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν). They too came to Jesus to question him (καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν). What do think about life after death?
Luke uniquely indicated that the Pharisees questioned Jesus (Ἐπερωτηθεὶς δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Φαρισαίων) about when the kingdom of God was coming (πότε ἔρχεται ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ). He answered them by saying (ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς καὶ εἶπεν) that the kingdom of God (ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ) was not coming with observable signs or careful watching (Οὐκ ἔρχεται…μετὰ παρατηρήσεως). Once again, Luke used a Greek word παρατηρήσεως, meaning observation or careful watching, that was only found here and nowhere else in the Greek biblical literature. Thus, no amount of careful watching or looking for signs would help them discover when the kingdom of God was coming. This discussion between the Pharisees and Jesus about the meaning of the kingdom of God and when it was to come was, of course, of interest to the followers of Jesus also. When do you think that the kingdom of God is coming?
Luke indicated that Jesus said (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν) that someone touched him (Ἥψατό μού τις). He noticed that power had gone out from him (ἐγὼ γὰρ ἔγνων δύναμιν ἐξεληλυθυῖαν ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ). This discussion of Jesus about his power and someone touching him can be found in Mark, chapter 5:30-32, but not in Matthew. Here, the discussion was with Peter, not the disciples. However, Mark said that his disciples said to him that there was such a large crowd pressing in on him. Why was he saying who touched him? How would they be able to tell who touched him? However, Jesus looked all around to see who had touched him. He was determined to know who it was that had received his power. Are you inquisitive?
Luke said that after looking around at all of them (καὶ περιβλεψάμενος πάντας αὐτοὺς), Jesus said to the man with the withered hand (εἶπεν αὐτῷ) to stretch out his hand (Ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρά σου). He did so (ὁ δὲ ἐποίησεν), and his hand was restored (καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ). All 3 synoptic gospels have this healing the same way. Matthew, chapter 12:13, and Mark, chapter 3:5, have something similar where Jesus cured the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath. Thus, Mark may have been the source of this healing story. Mark said that Jesus was angry, because he was upset at the hardness of their hearts. Finally, after all this discussion about the Sabbath, Jesus said to the man with the withered hand to stretch out his hand, which he did. Then his hand was restored like new. Jesus healed the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath without doing any physical activity. His hand was restored just like his other hand.
Luke said that on another Sabbath (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἑτέρῳ σαββάτῳ), Jesus entered an unnamed synagogue (εἰσελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν) where he taught there (καὶ διδάσκειν). There was a man present (καὶ ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖ) in the assembly whose right hand was withered (καὶ ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ ἡ δεξιὰ ἦν ξηρά). Matthew, chapter 12:9, and Mark, chapter 3:1 are similar to this incident, so that Mark might be the source of this discussion about the Sabbath and the man with the withered or dried out hand. Matthew had Jesus leave the grain fields and enter the local synagogue, instead of waiting another week or another Sabbath as Luke indicated. Clearly, Jesus was a good Jewish person, so that he had no trouble or unease about entering the local synagogue, probably at Capernaum. Maybe he had taught there before. Matthew had the discussion that began in the fields now switch to the synagogue. What was Jesus going to do about this man with the bad hand?
The four gospel stories show what happened to Jesus after he had been baptized. Matthew, chapter 3:16, and Mark, chapter 1:10, are almost the same as here. John, chapter 1:32, had John the Baptist explaining what was happening, but there was no mention of heaven opening or Jesus at prayer. Luke said that when Jesus had been baptized (καὶ Ἰησοῦ βαπτισθέντος), just as he was coming up out of the water, he was praying (καὶ προσευχομένου). Heaven was opened (ἀνεῳχθῆναι τὸν οὐρανὸν). There is no mention of Jesus seeing the heavens open as Mark indicated. The idea of heaven opening up or breaking open was also found among the major Israelite prophets Isaiah, chapter 63:19, and Ezekiel, chapter 1:1. All this happened as Jesus came up from the water, not during the baptism itself. The idea of Jesus praying was unique to Luke and one of his favorite themes. However, Luke did not have a description of John the Baptist, nor any discussion of whether John should baptize Jesus, as in Mark and Matthew.
This is unique to Mark. There was no discussion about rolling back the stone in the other 3 gospel stories, since it had been rolled back by the time that the women got there. However, Mark said that the 3 women had been saying to themselves or talking to one another (καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἑαυτάς). They wondered who would roll away the stone for them (ίς ἀποκυλίσει ἡμῖν τὸν λίθον) at the entrance to the tomb (ἐκ τῆς θύρας τοῦ μνημείου)? This was a legitimate question for these 3 women.
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:63. In Luke, chapter 22:66-70, there was something similar. However, there was nothing like this in John, chapter 18:19, where there was a discussion of the high priest with Jesus, but more about his teachings. Mark said that Jesus was originally silent (ὁ δὲ ἐσιώπα). He did not answer the high priest (καὶ οὐκ ἀπεκρίνατο οὐδέν). Then the high priest again asked Jesus directly (πάλιν ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς ἐπηρώτα αὐτὸν). Was he the Messiah Christ (καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς)? Was he the Son of the Blessed One (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Εὐλογητοῦ)? Matthew had said that the high priest Caiaphas was going to put him under oath according to the living God. Jesus was to tell everyone there whether he was the Christ, the Messiah, the Son of God. Luke indicated that they asked Jesus whether he was the Messiah Christ or the Son of God. Thus, this was a clear question about the divine claims of Jesus, particularly his messianic Christ role and his relationship to God the Father.
Matthew, chapter 22:23, and Luke, chapter 20:27, are almost word for word like this statement in Mark. Only Matthew had this happen on the same day as the discussion about the Roman coin. Mark said that some Sadducees came to Jesus (Καὶ ἔρχονται Σαδδουκαῖοι πρὸς αὐτόν). These Sadducees were another Jewish aristocratic group that was tied to the Temple. However, they did not believe in the bodily resurrection like the Pharisees did, since they said that there was no resurrection of the dead (οἵτινες λέγουσιν ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι). They too began to question Jesus (καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν λέγοντες).