Luke indicated that Jesus gave an explanation. He said that in the resurrection they would not be able to die anymore or be mortal (οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀποθανεῖν ἔτι δύνανται), because they would be like angels (ἰσάγγελοι γάρ εἰσιν). Once again, this is unique usage of the word ἰσάγγελοι in the Greek biblical literature that means equal to angels or like the angels. They would be children or sons of God (καὶ υἱοί εἰσιν Θεοῦ), because they were children or sons of the resurrection (τῆς ἀναστάσεως υἱοὶ ὄντες). This is quite a profound theological statement. The resurrected humans would be like angels so that marriage and procreation would be out of the question. Both Matthew, chapter 22:30, with Mark, chapter 12:25, almost word for word, have simpler statements about humans being angels in heaven. Mark simply said that they would all be like angels in heaven (ἀλλ’ εἰσὶν ὡς ἄγγελοι ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς). Matthew simply said they would all be like angels in heaven (ὡς ἄγγελοι ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ εἰσιν). Thus, these humans would take on an angelic way of life, with no reason to procreate in marriage. Would you like a sexless angelic heaven?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that it would be better for anyone (λυσιτελεῖ αὐτῷ) if a stone from a mill (εἰ λίθος μυλικὸς) were hung around their neck (περίκειται περὶ τὸν τράχηλον αὐτοῦ). Luke alone used the term μυλικὸς meaning mill. They should be thrown into the sea (καὶ ἔρριπται εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν), rather than cause one of these little ones to stumble (ἢ ἵνα σκανδαλίσῃ τῶν μικρῶν τούτων ἕνα). This saying about causing little believing children to sin or stumble can also be found in Mark, chapter 9:42, and Matthew, chapter 18:6, with some minor changes, with Matthew closer to Mark. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that if anyone of them caused these little ones, who believed in him, to stumble, to sin, or be scandalized (ὃς δ’ ἂν σκανδαλίσῃ ἕνα τῶν μικρῶν τούτων τῶν πιστευόντων εἰς ἐμέ), it would be better for them to fasten a great heavy millstone around their necks (συμφέρει αὐτῷ ἵνα κρεμασθῇ μύλος ὀνικὸς περὶ τὸν τράχηλον αὐτοῦ) and thus sink and be drowned in the deep sea (καὶ καταποντισθῇ ἐν τῷ πελάγει τῆς θαλάσσης). Mark indicated that Jesus said that if anyone of them caused these little ones, who believed in him, to be scandalized or stumble (Καὶ ὃς δ’ ἂν σκανδαλίσῃ ἕνα τῶν μικρῶν τούτων τῶν πιστευόντων), it would be better for them (καλόν ἐστιν αὐτῷ μᾶλλον) to fasten a great heavy millstone around their necks (εἰ περίκειται μύλος ὀνικὸς περὶ τὸν τράχηλον αὐτοῦ). They should be thrown or cast into the deep sea (καὶ βέβληται εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν). Causing the believing little children to sin meant it was better for that person to die in deep water with a heavy millstone around their neck. This millstone was a stone for grinding various grains. Luke never mentioned that they were believing little ones, just little ones. Have you ever caused little children to sin?
Luke once again uniquely had this response of Jesus, which was the same as previously. This response of Jesus in Luke was simple. Jesus said “No (οὐχί)” with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν). All of them present there, if they did not repent or have a change of heart, a metanoia (ἀλλ’ ἐὰν μὴ μετανοήσητε), they would all perish, just like these people upon whom the wall fell down on (πάντες ὡσαύτως ἀπολεῖσθε). Tragic death did not mean that you were a sinner. Repentance for all was important. Do you think that anyone deserves to die?
The unique answer in Luke was also simple. Jesus said “No (οὐχί)” with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν). These Galileans were no worse than anyone else. All of them present there, if they did not repent or have a change of heart, a metanoia (ἀλλ’ ἐὰν μὴ μετανοῆτε), they would all perish just like these Galileans (πάντες ὁμοίως ἀπολεῖσθε). Repentance for all was important, no matter what kind of death you might endure. How do you want to die?
Luke uniquely continued with this story as Jesus indicated that God said to this rich land owner (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Θεός) that he was a fool, calling him that (Ἄφρων). A fool was a harsh title, meaning that someone who had no concern for God. That very night (ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ), God would demand or require the soul or the life of this rich fool (τὴν ψυχήν σου ἀπαιτοῦσιν ἀπὸ σοῦ). Who would get all the things that he had prepared (ἃ δὲ ἡτοίμασας, τίνι ἔσται)? The best laid plans of men and mice often go astray. Instead of enjoying his long indulgent luxurious life, this rich man was about to die. Then the question remained, who would enjoy all the riches that he had attained? Death is the only certainty in life. The only question is when? Work as if you were going to live forever, but live your life and pray as if you are going to die tonight. Time’s up! When do you anticipate your death?
Luke uniquely had Jesus tell a story to answer the question from the lawyer. Jesus accepted (ὑπολαβὼν) this inquiry about the meaning of neighbor. He said (εἶπεν) that a man (Ἄνθρωπός), presumably Jewish, was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho (τις κατέβαινεν ἀπὸ Ἱερουσαλὴμ εἰς Ἱερειχώ), about 23 miles. However, he fell into the hands of some robbers (καὶ λῃσταῖς περιέπεσεν). They stripped him (οἳ καὶ ἐκδύσαντες αὐτὸν) and beat him up, inflicting wounds on him (καὶ πληγὰς ἐπιθέντες). Then they went away (ἀπῆλθον). They left him half dead (ἀφέντες ἡμιθανῆ). This was a simple story about a robbery that took place on the road between Jerusalem and Jericho. More than one violent robber attacked this man. They took everything, including his clothes, and beat him up. Then they left him to die, since he was badly wounded. People get robbed and beaten up all the time. Do you really care about it?
Luke had Simeon present the so-called “Nunc dimittis” canticle, named after the Latin translation of the first few words. Simeon said (καὶ εἶπεν) that the Lord or Master could now dismiss his servant or slave (Νῦν ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου) in peace (ἐν εἰρήνῃ), according to the word of God (κατὰ τὸ ῥῆμά σου). Simeon indicated that he was ready to die. He could be dismissed because his wish had been granted. Basically, this canticle talks continuously about the fulfillment of the prophecies of Isaiah.
Luke said that the Holy Spirit (ὑπὸ τοῦ Πνεύματος τοῦ Ἁγίου) had divinely revealed to Simeon (καὶ ἦν αὐτῷ κεχρηματισμένον) that he would not die or see death (μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον) before first seeing the Messiah Christ of the Lord God (πρὶν ἢ ἂν ἴδῃ τὸν Χριστὸν Κυρίου). Thus, Simeon had a revelation from God, the Holy Spirit about Christ, the messianic son of the Lord God, the Father. Once again, Luke had a very strong theological trinitarian statement.
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 27:42-44. In Luke, chapter 23:35-37, there is only a mention of leaders and Roman soldiers, without any specific indication of which leaders, while there is nothing similar in John. Mark said that the taunting continued. They said if Jesus was the Messiah Christ (ὁ Χριστὸς), the King of Israel (ὁ Βασιλεὺς Ἰσραὴλ), let him come down or descend from the cross now (καταβάτω νῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ σταυροῦ). Then they would see (ἵνα ἴδωμεν) and believe (καὶ πιστεύσωμεν). Mark also said that the bandits or robbers, who were crucified with Jesus (καὶ οἱ συνεσταυρωμένοι σὺν αὐτῷ), also taunted or insulted him in the same way as the others had done (ὠνείδιζον αὐτόν). These robbers were just as bad as the Jewish leaders, Roman soldiers, and the others passing by. However, Luke, chapter 23:39-43, had an extended conversation between Jesus and these two bandits. One of the two thieves or bandits told Jesus to save himself and them also, but the other thief or robber said that they deserved to die. Only Luke had this story about the good and the bad thief. Here in Matthew and Mark, both of the bandits being crucified with Jesus taunted him. There was nothing about these thieves at all in John. When someone is down, do you taunt them? Would you have been among these people taunting Jesus?
This is similar to Matthew, chapter 26:57, but there is no mention of the house of Caiaphas here as there was in Matthew. In Luke, chapter 22:54, Jesus was simply brought to the high priest’s house, which would have been Caiaphas. In John, chapter 18:13-14, they brought Jesus to the house of the father-in-law of Caiaphas, Annas, who had been the high priest of Jerusalem from 6-15 CE, before he was removed by the Romans at the age of 36, even though he lived to the age of 61. Thus, he had a lot of influence on things. John remarked that Caiaphas had said it was better for one person to die for the people. Caiaphas was the high priest from 18-36 CE since he had married the daughter of Annas. Mark simply said that they took Jesus to the high priest (Καὶ ἀπήγαγον τὸν Ἰησοῦν πρὸς τὸν ἀρχιερέα), without mentioning his name or saying it was his house. Apparently, the chief priests (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς), the elder presbyters (καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι), and the Scribes (καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς) had all gathered or assembled there (καὶ συνέρχονται πάντες). Was this an official meeting of the Jerusalem Sanhedrin? Probably not, because these official meetings could not be held during the festival days or during the Passover. On the other hand, some kind of informal meeting was possible. However, there was no mention of any Pharisees or Sadducees being there either.