‘It is written.
‘One does not live
By bread alone.’”
καὶ ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς Γέγραπται ὅτι Οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος.
Once again, this is the same as Matthew, chapter 4:3, nearly word for word. Luke said that Jesus responded to the devil (καὶ ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by citing a Septuagint written phrase (Γέγραπται) from Deuteronomy, chapter 8:3, about the fact that man does not live by bread alone (ὅτι Οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος). Luke did not finish this phrase the way that Matthew did by saying that man lives by all the words that come from the mouth of God. In Deuteronomy, Yahweh had reminded the Israelites that they had been tested for 40 years with hunger. Then came this saying about not living by bread alone, but by every word that came from the mouth of Yahweh, an anthropomorphism for Yahweh’s law. The Book of Deuteronomy was the most quoted book of the Torah in these New Testament writings.
“Mary gave birth
To her first-born son.
She wrapped him
Of swaddling cloths.
She laid him
In a manger,
Because there was
In the inn.”
καὶ ἔτεκεν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς τὸν πρωτότοκον, καὶ ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν καὶ ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ, διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι.
Luke explained in great detail about the birth of Jesus, his clothing, and the manger, that has become the famous Christmas scene that most have come to know and love. Matthew, chapter 2:1, had no details like this in his story about the birth of Jesus, while Mark and John had no infancy narratives at all. In fact, Matthew said that the Magi visited Mary and the child in a house in chapter 2:11, not a manger. Luke reported that Mary gave birth to her first-born son (καὶ ἔτεκεν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς τὸν πρωτότοκον). Did that imply that there were other children? Within the Jewish tradition, the first-born male child would be dedicated to God with special legal and family rights, as indicated in Exodus, chapter 13:2, where Yahweh got the first-born of everything, as a consecration to God. In Numbers, chapter 3:12, the Levites take the place of the first born as a dedication to God. In Deuteronomy, chapter 21:17, the first born had all the rights versus the other children. Mary wrapped the baby Jesus with bands of cloth or swaddling clothes (καὶ ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν), as it is often called. These tight bands of cloth kept the arms and legs of the newborn from wailing away, while also keeping the child warm. Then Mary laid him in a manger (καὶ ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ), because there was no place for them in the lodging inn (διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι). This manger (ἐν φάτνῃ) was a feeding trough for horses and cattle. Thus, Jesus was born in a place where animals would feed. He then would offer himself as the bread of life. Apparently, they were in a barn because there were no appropriate lodging places for a pregnant expecting woman. There was no indication that Joseph had other relatives in Bethlehem where they might stay. Just by coincidence, I am posting this blog on December 24, 2018, Christmas Eve.
Did not agree.
Some stood up.
πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἴσαι αἱ μαρτυρίαι οὐκ ἦσαν.
καί τινες ἀναστάντες ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ λέγοντες
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 14:60. However, this emphasis on witnesses and testimony was not in Luke, chapter 22, and John, chapter 18. Mark said that many people gave false testimony against Jesus (πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ). Their testimonies did not agree (καὶ ἴσαι αἱ μαρτυρίαι οὐκ ἦσαν). Some people stood up (καί τινες ἀναστάντες) and gave these false testimonies against Jesus (ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ λέγοντες). There is almost a redundancy in these remarks. According to Jewish law in Deuteronomy, chapters 17:6 and 19:15, it took 2 witnesses to convict anyone. This gathering sounds more like a trial than an informal meeting. Not only were they seeking pseudo or false witnesses, the whole council meeting may have been illegal, since they were not allowed to meet during the festivals, including Passover. This council included the elders or presbyters and the Scribes of Jerusalem, along with the priests and the high priests. However, the dreaded Pharisees and Sadducees were not part of this council meeting.
‘The first commandment is.
The Lord Our God!
The Lord is one!
You shall love
With all your heart,
With all your soul,
With all your mind,
And with all your strength.’”
ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι Πρώτη ἐστίν Ἄκουε, Ἰσραήλ, Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν Κύριος εἷς ἐστιν
καὶ ἀγαπήσεις Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου.
This response of Jesus can be found also in Matthew, chapter 22:37-38, without the Shema cry for Israel to listen. In Luke, chapter 10:27-28, Jesus responded that he had given the right answer to the question. Here, in Mark it is separate from the love of neighbor, which is the 2nd commandment. This Shema can be found in Deuteronomy, chapter 6:4-5. These verses have had a great influence on the Israelites as the great commandment that is recited often and written all over the place on their hands, forehead, and door posts. It is both a morning and an evening prayer, something you say at home and when you are away from home. The Israelites taught their children this simple prayer. Jesus and the early Christian followers will repeat this prayer in the gospel stories of the New Testament as the great commandment of love of God. This “Shema” became the basis of the Abrahamic religions, the great commandment of monotheism and love that must always be remembered. Mark said that Jesus answered this Scribe (ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς) that the first commandment was (ὅτι Πρώτη ἐστίν) “Hear this (Ἄκουε,)! O Israel (Ἰσραήλ,)! The Lord our God (Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς), the Lord is one (Κύριος εἷς ἐστιν)!” He should love the Lord (καὶ ἀγαπήσεις Κύριον), his God (τὸν Θεόν σου) with his whole heart (ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίᾳ σου), his whole soul (καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου), his whole mind (καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου), and with all his strength (καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου). This was the greatest and the first commandment, love God above all else with your whole powerful being, heart, soul, and mind.
That if a man’s brother
Leaving a wife,
But no child,
The man shall
Marry the widow
And raise up children
For his brother.’”
Διδάσκαλε, Μωϋσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν ὅτι ἐάν τινος ἀδελφὸς ἀποθάνῃ καὶ καταλίπῃ γυναῖκα καὶ μὴ ἀφῇ τέκνον, ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ.
Matthew, chapter 22:24, and Luke, chapter 20:28, are almost word for word as here in Mark. Mark said that these Sadducees addressed Jesus very respectfully as “Teacher (Διδάσκαλε).” These Sadducees quoted a Mosaic text that Moses had written for them (Μωϋσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν), from Deuteronomy, chapter 25:5-10. If a man’s brother should die (ὅτι ἐάν τινος ἀδελφὸς ἀποθάνῃ) leaving behind a wife (καὶ καταλίπῃ γυναῖκα) without any children (καὶ μὴ ἀφῇ τέκνον), his living brother should take his dead brother’s widow as his wife (ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα). He would then raise up the descendant children or seeds for his brother (καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ). This levirate law goes back as far as Tamar in Genesis, chapter 38:1-30, with the story of Judah’s 3 sons and Tamar, the original wife of Er. The brother of the deceased was supposed to marry his brother’s widow if he had no sons. The widow was not to marry outside her family. It also assumes that the brother lived close by or in the same house as his brother. There was no indication of whether the brother was married or not, but this seems to assume a younger brother. This was an attempt to prolong the heritage and name of a person, which was common in ancient times. The punishment for the brother’s refusal was an insult rather than any physical punishment.
‘You shall not murder!
You shall not commit adultery!
You shall not steal!
You shall not bear false witness!
You shall not defraud!
Honor your father!
Honor your mother!’”
τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας Μὴ φονεύσῃς, Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, Μὴ κλέψῃς, Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, Μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς, Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα
This response of Jesus can be found in Matthew, chapter 19:17-19, and Luke, chapter 18:20, but slightly different, since Luke and Mark are closer to each other. Mark said that Jesus gave the classic answer for those who wanted to enter eternal life. They knew the commandments or laws (τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας). Follow them! Mark did not have any question about which commandments to follow. Jesus just mentioned some of the commandments. You shall not kill or murder (Μὴ φονεύσῃς)! You shall not commit adultery (Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς)! You shall not steal (Μὴ κλέψῃς)! You shall not bear false witness (Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς)! You shall not defraud (Μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς)! Honor your father (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου)! Honor your mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα)! All of these are from the Ten Commandments in Exodus, chapter 20:12-16, and Deuteronomy, chapter 5:16-20. Mark does not have the reminder to love your neighbor. However, he added the comment about not defrauding others.
οἱ δὲ εἶπαν· Ἐπέτρεψεν Μωϋσῆς βιβλίον ἀποστασίου γράψαι καὶ ἀπολῦσαι.
This answer of the Pharisees about Moses and divorce can also be found in Matthew, chapter 19:7, with some minor changes. The Pharisees are here responding to the question of Jesus, rather than the other way around, as in Matthew. Mark indicated that the Pharisees said (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν) that Moses allowed a man to write a certificate of divorce or dismissal (Ἐπέτρεψεν Μωϋσῆς βιβλίον ἀποστασίου γράψαι). Thus, the man could then divorce her or send her away (καὶ ἀπολῦσαι). The reference to Moses is from Deuteronomy, chapter 24:1-4, where there was talk about a certificate of divorce, and the possibility of many marriages. This certificate was called in Hebrew a “get.” Clearly divorce for a man was okay. However, after the second marriage there was a defilement.