They began to rejoice (Lk 19:37-19:37)

“As Jesus was now approaching

The path

Down from

The Mount of Olives,

The whole multitude

Of the disciples

Began

To praise God joyfully

With a loud voice

For all the deeds

Of power

That they had seen.”

 

ἐγγίζοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἤδη πρὸς τῇ καταβάσει τοῦ ὄρους τῶν Ἐλαιῶν ἤρξαντο ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν μαθητῶν χαίροντες αἰνεῖν τὸν Θεὸν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ περὶ πασῶν ὧν εἶδον δυνάμεων,

 

Luke said that as Jesus was now approaching the path descending down (ἐγγίζοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἤδη πρὸς τῇ καταβάσει) from the Mount of Olives (τοῦ ὄρους τῶν Ἐλαιῶν), the whole multitude of the disciples began (ἤρξαντο ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν μαθητῶν) to praise God joyfully (χαίροντες αἰνεῖν τὸν Θεὸν) with a loud voice (φωνῇ μεγάλῃ) for all the deeds of power that they had seen (περὶ πασῶν ὧν εἶδον δυνάμεων).  This is a unique use of the word, καταβάσει that means descent.  Luke was the only writer who said that it was this descent of the Mount of Olives where all this took place.  He also mentioned that only his disciples who was praising Jesus for all that he had done.  Both Matthew, chapter 21:9, and Mark, chapter 11:8-9, are very similar but with slight differences.  Mark said that the crowds or the people were in front of (οἱ προάγοντες) and behind Jesus (καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες).  They were all shouting out (ἔκραζον).  Matthew said that the crowds were in front of him and behind him (οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι οἱ προάγοντες αὐτὸν καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες), as they were all shouting out (ἔκραζον).  John, chapter 12:13, on the other hand, simply said that they were shouting out.  Have you ever been in a crowd that was shouting out things?

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Jesus teaches in the synagogue (Mk 6:2-6:2)

“On the Sabbath,

Jesus began to teach

In the synagogue.

Many who heard him

Were astonished.

They said.

‘Where did this man

Get all this?

What is this wisdom

That has been given

To him?

What deeds of power

Are being done

By his hands!’”

 

καὶ γενομένου σαββάτου ἤρξατο διδάσκειν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ· καὶ οἱ πολλοὶ ἀκούοντες ἐξεπλήσσοντο λέγοντες Πόθεν τούτῳ ταῦτα, καὶ τίς ἡ σοφία ἡ δοθεῖσα τούτῳ; καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις τοιαῦται διὰ τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ γινόμεναι;

 

This story of Jesus astonishing the people in Nazareth can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, here, Matthew, chapter 13:54-56, and Luke, chapter 4:16-22.  Luke was more elaborate, while Matthew was closer to Mark, who said that on the Sabbath (καὶ γενομένου σαββάτου), Jesus began to teach the people in the synagogue (ἤρξατο διδάσκειν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ).  However, many of the people that heard him were amazed or astonished (καὶ οἱ πολλοὶ ἀκούοντες ἐξεπλήσσοντο).  They wondered where did he get all this knowledge and wisdom (λέγοντες Πόθεν τούτῳ ταῦτα, καὶ τίς ἡ σοφία ἡ δοθεῖσα)?  Who gave him the power to do all these miraculous actions with his hands (καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις τοιαῦται διὰ τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ γινόμεναι)?  They seemed surprised that Jesus was so smart and had these healing powers.  They would have known him for some time before this event.

The astonishment in his own town (Mt 13:54-13:56)

“He came to his hometown.

He began to teach the people

In their synagogue.

Thus,

They were astonished.

They said.

‘Where did this man

Get this wisdom?

Where did he get

These deeds of power?’”

 

καὶ ἐλθὼν εἰς τὴν πατρίδα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν, ὥστε ἐκπλήσσεσθαι αὐτοὺς καὶ λέγειν Πόθεν τούτῳ ἡ σοφία αὕτη καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις;

 

This story of Jesus astonishing the people in Nazareth can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Mark, chapter 6:2, and Luke, chapter 4:16-17.  Luke is more elaborate, while Matthew is closer to Mark here.  Matthew said that Jesus came to his hometown, his own area (καὶ ἐλθὼν εἰς τὴν πατρίδα αὐτοῦ), probably Nazareth, but it is not explicitly named.  Jesus began to teach the people in their synagogue (ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν).  However, they were astonished (ὥστε ἐκπλήσσεσθαι αὐτοὺς).  They wondered where did he get his wisdom (καὶ λέγειν Πόθεν τούτῳ ἡ σοφία αὕτη)?  Where did he get these miraculous powers (καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις)?  They seemed surprised that Jesus was so smart and had these healing powers.  They would have known him for some time.

Against Capernaum (Mt 11:23-11:24)

“You!

Capernaum!

Will you be exalted

To heaven?

No!

You will be brought down

To Hades.

If the deeds of power

Done in you

Had been done in Sodom,

It would have remained

Until this day.

But I tell you!

On the day of judgment

That it shall be more tolerable

For the land of Sodom

Than for you.”

 

καὶ σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ; ἕως Ἅιδου καταβήσῃ· ὅτι εἰ ἐν Σοδόμοις ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν σοί, ἔμεινεν ἂν μέχρι τῆς σήμερον.

πλὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι γῇ Σοδόμων ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως ἢ σοί.

 

Then Matthew has Jesus take on his own new home town of Capernaum.  Luke, chapter 10:15, has a similar statement, word for word, indicating a possible common Q source.  However, the second verse is unique to Matthew.  Jesus, turned to his home town of Capernaum (καὶ σύ, Καφαρναούμ), as mentioned in chapter 4:13.  He questioned them.  Would they be exalted or raised up to heaven (μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ)?  No!  In fact, they would be cast down to the unseen world of Hades (ἕως Ἅιδου καταβήσῃ), the traditional Greek word for hell.  If the mighty miracles that were done in Capernaum were done in Sodom (ὅτι εἰ ἐν Σοδόμοις ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν σοί), Sodom might have remained until the present day (ἔμεινεν ἂν μέχρι τῆς σήμερον).  This refers to the story in Genesis, chapter 19:1-29.  Then Jesus gave a solemn pronouncement “I say to you” (πλὴν λέγω ὑμῖν) that on the day of judgment (ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως ἢ σοί) it would be more tolerable for the land of Sodom than for the people of Capernaum (ὅτι γῇ Σοδόμων ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται).  Thus, Jesus had warned these three towns within 10 miles of each other, because they had not repented despite his many miracles there.

Against Chorazin and Bethsaida (Mt 11:21-11:22)

“Woe to you!

Chorazin!

Woe to you!

Bethsaida!

If the deeds of power

Done in you

Had been done

In Tyre

And in Sidon,

They would have repented

Long ago,

In sackcloth

And ashes.

But I tell you!

On the day of judgment,

It will be more tolerable

For Tyre

And Sidon

Than for you.”

 

Οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν· οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδάν· ὅτι εἰ ἐν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἐγένοντο αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν, πάλαι ἂν ἐν σάκκῳ καὶ σποδῷ μετενόησαν.

πλὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως ἢ ὑμῖν.

 

Then Matthew has Jesus complaint about two particular towns, Chorazin (Χοραζείν), that was about 3 miles north of Capernaum, and Bethsaida (Βηθσαϊδάν), about 5 miles north of Capernaum on the northern tip of the Sea of Galilee.  All these towns were fairly close together.  Luke, chapter 10:13-14, has a similar statement, indicating a possible common Q source.  This reproach started with a typical prophetic curse of “woe to you” (Οὐαί σοι), especially used by Isaiah.  Jesus also mentioned the Phoenician Mediterranean cities of Tyre and Sidon (ὅτι εἰ ἐν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι) that Isaiah, chapter 23:1-12, and many of the other prophets had wailed against.  Jesus said that if these same miraculous deeds had taken place there (ἐγένοντο αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν) in these two coastal cities, they would have repented in sackcloth and ashes (πάλαι ἂν ἐν σάκκῳ καὶ σποδῷ μετενόησαν).  Then Matthew has Jesus utter this solemn pronouncement “I say to you “(πλὴν λέγω ὑμῖν).  The non-Jewish cities of Tyre and Sidon would be more tolerated on the day of judgment than the towns of Chorazin and Bethsaida (Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως ἢ ὑμῖν).  Jesus was upset at Chorazin and Bethsaida for their lack of repentance