The crushing stone (Lk 20:18-20:18)

“Everyone who falls

On that stone

Will be broken

To pieces.

It will crush anyone

On whom it falls.”

 

πᾶς ὁ πεσὼν ἐπ’ ἐκεῖνον τὸν λίθον συνθλασθήσεται· ἐφ’ ὃν δ’ ἂν πέσῃ, λικμήσει αὐτόν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that anyone who fell on that cornerstone (πᾶς ὁ πεσὼν ἐπ’ ἐκεῖνον τὸν λίθον) would be broken or shattered into pieces (συνθλασθήσεται).  This cornerstone would crush or grind anyone into powder (λικμήσει αὐτόν) on whom it fell (ἐφ’ ὃν δ’ ἂν πέσῃ).  This is exactly the same in some manuscripts of Matthew 21:44.  However, there is nothing like this in MarkMatthew indicated that Jesus came back to his cornerstone idea.  If anyone fell on this key stone (καὶ ὁ πεσὼν ἐπὶ τὸν λίθον), they would be broken or shattered into pieces (τοῦτον συνθλασθήσεται).  If this corner stone fell on anyone (ἐφ’ ὃν δ’ ἂν πέσῃ), it would crush and grind them into powder (λικμήσει αὐτόν).  You had to be careful with this cornerstone, Jesus.  Have you ever noticed cornerstones in public buildings?

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The rejected stone (Lk 20:17-20:17)

“But Jesus

Looked at them.

He said.

‘What then does

This text mean?’

‘The very stone

That the builders rejected

Has become

The cornerstone.’”

 

ὁ δὲ ἐμβλέψας αὐτοῖς εἶπεν Τί οὖν ἐστιν τὸ γεγραμμένον τοῦτο Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες, οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus looked at them (ὁ δὲ ἐμβλέψας αὐτοῖς).  He asked (εἶπεν) what this written biblical text meant (Τί οὖν ἐστιν τὸ γεγραμμένον τοῦτο)?  He then quoted Psalm 118, 22 that the very stone that the builders had rejected (Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες) has become the chief headstone or the cornerstone (οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας) of the building.  This citation of Psalm 118:22-23 can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:42, and in Mark, chapter 12:10-11, but in a longer version.  Mark said that Jesus asked them if they had not read the scriptures (οὐδὲ τὴν γραφὴν ταύτην ἀνέγνωτε) especially Psalm 118, that was also part of the Hallel prayer.  Then Jesus quoted a few verses of this psalm about the stone that the builders had rejected (Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες), because they probably thought that it was inferior.  Now, that very stone has become the cornerstone or key head stone (οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας) of that building.  Then he added that this was the work of the Lord (παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη) that was amazing and marvelous to everyone’s eyes (καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν).  Matthew indicated that Jesus asked them (Λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) if they had read the scriptures (Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς)?  Then Jesus quoted a few verses of this Psalm 118: 22-23, the same as Mark, with a line more than Luke, about the stone that the builders had rejected (Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς), because they probably thought that it was inferior.  Now, that very stone has become the cornerstone or key head stone (οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας) of that building.  This was the work of the Lord (παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη) that was amazing and marvelous to everyone’s eyes (καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν).  The rejected cornerstone was a hint at Jesus’s own rejection by the Jewish leaders that would be a big mistake.  Have you ever misjudged the value of a person?

The second commandment (Mk 12:31-12:31)

“‘The second commandment is.

‘You shall love

Your neighbor

As yourself.’

There is no other commandment

Greater than these.’”

 

δευτέρα αὕτη Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. μείζων τούτων ἄλλη ἐντολὴ οὐκ ἔστιν.

 

There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:39-40, and Luke, chapter 10:27, but in a more condensed version.  This was based on Leviticus, chapter 19:18.  A further explanation of the commandments in Leviticus ends with this basic fundamental concept of love your neighbor as yourself, which became the cornerstone of Judaism and Christianity.  They were not to hate in their heart anyone of their relatives.  They should reprove their neighbor, but not take vengeance on him.  They were not to bear a grudge, because they should love them as themselves.  Mark said that Jesus replied that the 2nd commandment (δευτέρα αὕτη) was like the 1st one about love.  Not only were they to love God, but they were to love their neighbors as themselves (Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν).  There were no other commandments greater than these 2 commandments of love (μείζων τούτων ἄλλη ἐντολὴ οὐκ ἔστιν).  Everything was based on the love of God and neighbor.

 

The corner stone (Mk 12:10-12:11)

“Have you not read

This scripture?

‘The stone

That the builders rejected

Has become

The cornerstone.

This was the Lord’s doing.

It is amazing

In our eyes.’”

 

οὐδὲ τὴν γραφὴν ταύτην ἀνέγνωτε Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες, οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας·

παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη, καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν;

 

This citation of Psalm 118 can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:42, and in Luke, chapter 20:17, in an abbreviated fashion.  Mark said that Jesus asked them if they had not read the scriptures (οὐδὲ τὴν γραφὴν ταύτην ἀνέγνωτε) especially Psalm 118, that was also part of the Hallel prayer.  Then Jesus quoted a few verses of this Psalm 118: 22-23, about the stone that the builders had rejected (Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες), because they probably thought that it was inferior.  Now, that very stone has become the cornerstone or key head stone (οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας) of that building.  This was the work of the Lord (παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη) that was amazing and marvelous to everyone’s eyes (καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν).  The rejected cornerstone was a hint at Jesus’s own rejection by the Jewish leaders.

The second commandment (Mt 22:39-22:40)

“The second commandment

Is like it.

‘You shall love

Your neighbor

As yourself.

On these two commandments

Hang all the law

And the prophets.’”

 

δευτέρα ὁμοία αὐτῇ Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν.

ἐν ταύταις ταῖς δυσὶν ἐντολαῖς ὅλος ὁ νόμος κρέμαται καὶ οἱ προφῆται.

 

There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:31, almost word for word, and Luke, chapter 20:27, but in a more condensed version.  This was based on Leviticus, chapter 19:18.  A further explanation of the commandments in Leviticus ends with this basic fundamental concept of love your neighbor as yourself, which became the cornerstone of Judaism and Christianity.  They were not to hate in their heart anyone of their relatives.  They should reprove their neighbor, but not take vengeance on him.  They were not to bear a grudge, because they should love them as themselves.  Jesus replied that the 2nd commandment was like the 1st one (δευτέρα ὁμοία αὐτῇ) since it was about love.  Not only were they to love God, but they were to love their neighbors as themselves (Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν).  All the commandments of the law (ὅλος ὁ νόμος) and the prophets (καὶ οἱ προφῆται) hang (κρέμαται) on these two commandments (ἐν ταύταις ταῖς δυσὶν ἐντολαῖς).

Citation of Psalm 118 (Mt 21:42-21:42)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Have you never read

In the scriptures?

‘The stone

That the builders rejected

Has become

The cornerstone.

This was the Lord’s doing,

It is amazing in our eyes’”

 

Λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς, οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας· παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη, καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν;

 

This citation of Psalm 118:22-23 can be found in Mark, chapter 12:10, word for word, and Luke, chapter 20:17, in an abbreviated fashion.  Jesus asked them (Λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) if they had read the scriptures (Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς) especially Psalm 118, that was also part of the Hallel prayer.  Then Jesus quoted a few verses of this Psalm 118: 22-23, about the stone that the builders had rejected (Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς), because they probably thought that it was inferior.  Now, that very stone has become the cornerstone or key head stone (οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας) of that building.  This was the work of the Lord (παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη) that was amazing and marvelous to everyone’s eyes (καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν).

The mountain will be destroyed (Jer 51:25-51:26)

“‘I am against you!

O destroying mountain!’

Says Yahweh.

‘You destroy

The whole earth!

I will stretch out

My hand

Against you!

I will roll you down

From the crags!

I will make you

A burned out mountain!

No stone shall be taken

From you

for a corner.

No stone

Shall be taken

From you

For a foundation.

But you shall be

A perpetual waste.’

Says Yahweh.”

Yahweh via Jeremiah assumes the first person singular in this oracle against the mountain of Babylon that may be the great temple tower of Babylon. This destroying mountain will itself be destroyed. Yahweh was going to stretch out his hand against this temple mountain, so that it will become a burned out temple. No one will be able to take a corner from it to make a cornerstone for another temple. No one will be able to set up a foundation on this rubble, because it will be a perpetual waste. This was a strong condemnation of the huge Babylonian temple.