Jesus rebukes Peter (Mk 8:33-8:33)

“But turning

And looking

At his disciples,

Jesus rebuked Peter.

He said.

‘Get behind me!

Satan!

You are setting

Your mind

Not on divine things,

But on human things.’”

 

ὁ δὲ ἐπιστραφεὶς καὶ ἰδὼν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἐπετίμησεν Πέτρῳ καὶ λέγει Ὕπαγε ὀπίσω μου, Σατανᾶ, ὅτι οὐ φρονεῖς τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἀλλὰ τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων.

 

Jesus and Peter had a conversation that also can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:33.  Then Jesus turned against Peter (ὁ δὲ ἐπιστραφεὶς).  He looked at his disciples (καὶ ἰδὼν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ).  He then warned, rebuked, or admonished Peter (ἐπετίμησεν Πέτρῳ), just as he had done to him.  Jesus did not want an uprising among his followers.  He told him (καὶ λέγει) to get behind him (Ὕπαγε ὀπίσω μου) because Peter was acting like Satan (Σατανᾶ), since he was only thinking or caring (ὅτι οὐ φρονεῖς) about human things (ἀλλὰ τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων), not divine things of God (τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ).  Peter went from being a great leader to a tempting Satan trying to put obstacles in the way of a divine plan for Jesus.  Be careful when you speak out against a leader.

Peter rebukes Jesus (Mk 8:32-8:32)

“Jesus said

All this

Quite openly.

Peter took him aside.

He began

To rebuke Jesus.”

 

καὶ παρρησίᾳ τὸν λόγον ἐλάλει. καὶ προσλαβόμενος ὁ Πέτρος αὐτὸν ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ

 

Mark recounted that Jesus said all these things openly (καὶ παρρησίᾳ τὸν λόγον ἐλάλει).  Then Jesus and Peter had a conversation that also can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:22.  Peter, using his new authority, took Jesus aside (καὶ προσλαβόμενος).  He began to warn, rebuke, or admonish him (ὁ Πέτρος αὐτὸν ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ).  However, there is no indication of what Peter said as there was in Matthew.  Apparently, Peter could not image a Messiah who would suffer and die.

Should they buy food? (Mk 6:37-6:37)

“But Jesus

Answered them.

‘You give them

Something to eat!’

They said to him.

‘Are we to go

And buy

Two hundred denarii

Worth of bread?

Then give it

To them

To eat.’”

 

ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Δότε αὐτοῖς ὑμεῖς φαγεῖν. καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Ἀπελθόντες ἀγοράσωμεν δηναρίων διακοσίων ἄρτους, καὶ δώσομεν αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν;

 

The fact that Jesus wanted to feed everyone is recorded in all four gospels, Matthew, chapter 14:16, Luke, chapter 9:13, and John, chapter 6:5-7, plus here in a more elaborate fashion.  Despite the fact that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home, Jesus wanted to feed them there.  Mark indicated that Jesus answered his disciples (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) telling them to give the people something to eat (Δότε αὐτοῖς ὑμεῖς φαγεῖν).  Only Mark has this response of the disciples asking about buying food.  The disciples said to Jesus (καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ) if they were to go to buy food (Ἀπελθόντες ἀγοράσωμεν), that it would cost about 200 denarii to buy bread enough (δηναρίων διακοσίων ἄρτους) for all these people to eat (καὶ δώσομεν αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν).  A denarius was worth one day’s pay, so that that 200 denarii would be nearly a year’s pay, a large amount of money.  The disciples thought that Jesus wanted them to buy some bread for the crowd.  In John, there was a conversation between Jesus and Philip about this.

The women from Galilee (Mt 27:55-27:55)

“Many women

Were also there.

They were looking on

From a distance.

They had followed Jesus

From Galilee.

They had served him.”

 

Ἦσαν δὲ ἐκεῖ γυναῖκες πολλαὶ ἀπὸ μακρόθεν θεωροῦσαι, αἵτινες ἠκολούθησαν τῷ Ἰησοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας διακονοῦσαι αὐτῷ·

 

This is similar to Mark, chapter 15:40, but there was no mention of Galilee there.  However, in Luke, chapter 23:49, there is a specific mention of the women from Galilee.  In John, chapter 19:25-27, there was a mention of the mother of Jesus, and a conversation, but no mention of Galilee.  Matthew said many women were also there (Ἦσαν δὲ ἐκεῖ γυναῖκες πολλαὶ).  They were looking on from a distance (ἀπὸ μακρόθεν θεωροῦσαι), which would have been their normal role.  They had followed Jesus from Galilee (αἵτινες ἠκολούθησαν τῷ Ἰησοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας), as they provided, ministered, or served Jesus (διακονοῦσαι αὐτῷ).  These may have been the first deaconess of the Christian era.  However, they were from Galilee and not women from Jerusalem.

 

The curse to the betrayer (Mt 26:23-26:24)

“Jesus answered.

‘The one who has dipped

His hand

Into the bowl

With me,

Will betray me.

The Son of Man

Goes to death,

As it is written of him.

But woe to that man

By whom

The Son of Man

Is betrayed!

It would have been better

For that man

Not to have been born.’”

 

ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Ὁ ἐμβάψας μετ’ ἐμοῦ τὴν χεῖρα ἐν τῷ τρυβλίῳ, οὗτός με παραδώσει.

ὁ μὲν Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὑπάγει καθὼς γέγραπται περὶ αὐτοῦ, οὐαὶ δὲ τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἐκείνῳ δι’ οὗ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοται· καλὸν ἦν αὐτῷ εἰ οὐκ ἐγεννήθη ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος.

 

This is similar to Mark, chapter 14:21, and Luke, chapter 22:21-22, but there is no mention of him not being born there.  John, chapter 13:26-27, has the dipping of the hand in the bowl for bread in a conversation between Jesus and Peter.  Here, Jesus answered and said (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν) that the one who dipped his hand into the bowl or the deep platter with him (Ὁ ἐμβάψας μετ’ ἐμοῦ τὴν χεῖρα ἐν τῷ τρυβλίῳ) would betray him (οὗτός με παραδώσει).  He said that the Son of Man would go to death (ὁ μὲν Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὑπάγει), as it was written about him (καθὼς γέγραπται περὶ αὐτοῦ).  But then Jesus cursed the man who would betray the Son of Man (οὐαὶ δὲ τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἐκείνῳ δι’ οὗ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοται).  He said that it would have been better if that man had never been born (καλὸν ἦν αὐτῷ εἰ οὐκ ἐγεννήθη ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος).  This was a very strong curse, but without an exact identification for whom it was meant.

The conversation between Peter and Jesus (Mt 16:22-16:23)

“Peter took Jesus.

He began to admonish him.

Saying.

‘God forbid it!

Lord!

This must never happen to you.’

But Jesus turned.

He said to Peter.

‘Get behind me!

Satan!

You are a stumbling block

To me!

You are not setting

Your mind

On things of God,

But on human things.’”

 

καὶ προσλαβόμενος αὐτὸν ὁ Πέτρος ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ λέγων Ἵλεώς σοι, Κύριε· οὐ μὴ ἔσται σοι τοῦτο.

ὁ δὲ στραφεὶς εἶπεν τῷ Πέτρῳ Ὕπαγε ὀπίσω μου, Σατανᾶ· σκάνδαλον εἶ ἐμοῦ, ὅτι οὐ φρονεῖς τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἀλλὰ τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων.

 

Jesus and Peter had a conversation that also can be found in Mark, chapter 8:32-33.  Peter, using his new authority, took Jesus aside (καὶ προσλαβόμενος αὐτὸν).  He began to warn, rebuke, or admonish him (ὁ Πέτρος ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ).  He said to Jesus that all those things in Jerusalem were never going to happen to him, the Lord (λέγων Ἵλεώς σοι, Κύριε· οὐ μὴ ἔσται σοι τοῦτο).  Then Jesus turned against Peter (ὁ δὲ στραφεὶς).  He told him to get behind him (εἶπεν τῷ Πέτρῳ Ὕπαγε ὀπίσω μου) because Peter was acting like Satan (Σατανᾶ), since he was becoming a scandalous stumbling block (σκάνδαλον εἶ ἐμοῦ).  Peter was only thinking (ὅτι οὐ φρονεῖς) about human things (ἀλλὰ τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων), not divine things of God (τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ).  Peter went from being a great leader to a tempting Satan trying to put obstacles in the way of a divine plan for Jesus.

The disciples of John question Jesus (Mt 11:3-11:3)

“The disciples of John

Said to Jesus.

‘Are you the one

Who is to come?

Or are we to wait for another?’”

 

εἶπεν αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, ἢ ἕτερον προσδοκῶμεν

 

The question in Luke, chapter 7:19 is exactly the same, word for word, as here, indicating a possible Q source.  These disciples of John came to Jesus.  They had one big important question to ask him directly (εἶπεν αὐτῷ).  Was Jesus the expected Messiah (Σὺ εἶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος) or should they wait for someone else (ἢ ἕτερον προσδοκῶμεν)?  The disciples of John were true messianic Jews, waiting for the Messiah.  Did they not realize that Jesus had been baptized by John the Baptist?  In fact, John had already met Jesus, had a conversation with him, and witnessed his baptism in chapter 3:11-17.  What more did he need?

The Magi follow the star (Mt 2:9-2:10)

“When they had heard out

The king,

They set out

On their way.

There ahead of them

Went the star

That they had seen

Rising in the east.

It stopped

Over the place

Where the child was.

When they saw

That the star

Had stopped,

They were overwhelmed

With joy.”

 

οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπορεύθησαν· καὶ ἰδοὺ ὁ ἀστὴρ, ὃν εἶδον ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ, προῆγεν αὐτούς ἕως ἐλθὼν ἐστάθη ἐπάνω οὗ ἦν τὸ παιδίον.

ἰδόντες δὲ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην σφόδρα.

 

When the magi had finished their conversation with King Herod (οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες τοῦ βασιλέως), they set out on their way (ἐπορεύθησαν) to Bethlehem.  Then they saw that the star in the eastern skies (δοὺ ὁ ἀστὴρ, ὃν εἶδον ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ).  This star led them until it stopped (προῆγεν αὐτούς ἕως ἐλθὼν ἐστάθη) over the place where the child was (ἐπάνω οὗ ἦν τὸ παιδίον).  They were really happy with exceeding great joy (ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην σφόδρα) about seeing this star (ἰδόντες δὲ τὸν ἀστέρα) that had guided them.  Obviously, this was a religious miracle star, not some ordinary star.  The magi had completed their task.

Bel eats and drinks (Dan 14:6-14:7)

“The king said to Daniel.

‘Do you not think

That Bel

Is a living God?

Do you not see

How much he eats,

How much he drinks,

Every day?’

Then Daniel laughed.

He said.

‘Do not be deceived!

O king!

This thing is

Only clay inside,

With bronze,

On the outside.

It never ate

Or drank anything.’”

King Cyrus got into a conversation with Daniel about Bel and his living God. The king maintained that Bel was also a living god, since he was able to eat and drink every day. Then Daniel laughed at him. He told the king not to be deceived. Bel was only made of clay and bronze, so that it was not capable of eating or drinking.

The holy angels speak (Dan 8:13-8:14)

“Then I heard

A holy one speaking.

Another holy one

Said to the one

That spoke.

‘For how long

Is this vision

Concerning

The regular burnt offering

Continue?

This transgression

Makes desolate

The sanctuary.

How long will

The sanctuary

With the host

Be trampled?’

He answered.

‘For two thousand three hundred

Evenings and mornings.

Then the sanctuary

Shall be restored

To its rightful state.’”

Here Daniel has a conversation between 2 holy ones, probably a reference to angels. One holy one or angel wanted to know how long the lack of the regular burnt offerings at the sanctuary would continue. The transgression of the sanctuary meant that the it and the people who worked there, the hosts, the priests, were trampled under. The response of the other angel was an exact time, 2,300 evenings and mornings, that turns out to be 1,150 days or about 3 ½ years. It was about 3 years that the sanctuary was defiled until 164 BCE.