They spread garments (Lk 19:36-19:36)

“As Jesus rode along,

People kept spreading

Their cloaks

On the road.”

 

πορευομένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ὑπεστρώννυον τὰ ἱμάτια ἑαυτῶν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ.

 

Luke said that as Jesus rode (πορευομένου δὲ αὐτοῦ) along the road on this colt, people kept spreading their cloaks (ὑπεστρώννυον τὰ ἱμάτια ἑαυτῶν) on the road (ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ).  Once again, the word ὑπεστρώννυον, that means to spread under, was unique to Luke, and not found elsewhere in the Greek biblical literature.  However, both Matthew, chapter 21:8, and Mark, chapter 11:8 were more similar to each other than to Luke.  They added the idea of branches on the road that was not here in LukeMark said that many people (καὶ πολλοὶ) spread out their outer garments, cloaks, or coats on the road (τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν ἔστρωσαν εἰς τὴν ὁδόν).  Meanwhile, others were cutting down leafy branches from the surrounding fields (ἄλλοι δὲ στιβάδας, κόψαντες ἐκ τῶν ἀγρῶν), also spreading out these branches on the road.   Matthew emphasized the large crowds.  He said that a very large crowd of people (ὁ δὲ πλεῖστος ὄχλος) spread out their outer garments or coats on the road (ἔστρωσαν ἑαυτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ,).  Meanwhile, others were cutting down branches from the surrounding trees (ἄλλοι δὲ ἔκοπτον κλάδους ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων).  They also spread out these branches on the road (καὶ ἐστρώννυον ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ).  This idea of laying garments on the road can be found in 2 Kings, chapter 9:13, to protect the feet of the king.  Clearly, this was an attempt to connect Jesus with the Davidic kingship.  Was Jesus to be the new king of Israel as a son of David?  This event has become the basis for the great Palm Sunday celebration, the triumphant entrance of Jesus into Jerusalem.  Actually, only John, chapter 12:13, called these palm branches.  Do you like the palms on Palm Sunday?

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Faith (Lk 17:19-17:19)

“Jesus said to him.

‘Get up!

Go on your way!

Your faith

Has made you well!’”

 

καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἀναστὰς πορεύου· ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε.

 

Only Luke has this story about the curing of the ten lepers.  Luke indicated that Jesus said to this cured Samaritan leper (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ) that he was to get up (Ἀναστὰς) and go on his way (πορεύου), because his faith has made him well or saved him (ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε).  Actually, he had been cured earlier with the other 9 lepers.  However, this is a further emphasis on faith as an ingredient in the healing process.  How do you connect faith and healing?

The grandfather of Jesus (Lk 3:23-3:23)

“Jesus was the son,

As was thought,

Of Joseph,

The son of Heli.”

 

ὢν υἱός, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, Ἰωσὴφ, τοῦ Ἡλεὶ

 

Luke said that Jesus was the son (ὢν υἱός), as was thought or supposed (ὡς ἐνομίζετο), of Joseph (Ἰωσὴφ,), the son of Heli (τοῦ Ἡλεὶ).  Right off the bat, there is a problem with the differences between the genealogies of Matthew and Luke.  The end of the genealogy of Matthew, chapter 1:16, is Joseph (Ἰωσὴφ) with his father Jacob (Ἰακὼβ).  Perhaps the names of Jacob and Joseph were an attempt to connect Jesus with the great Joseph, the son of Jacob, who brought the sons of Jacob to Egypt.  However, compared to the text here in Luke, there is a difference with the father of Joseph, the grandfather of Jesus.  Luke called him “the son of Heli,” not “the son of Jacob.”  Luke said that Joseph was the so-called father of Jesus.  Thus, it might seem simple enough to compare this genealogy of Jesus with the one in Matthew, chapter 1:1-1:17.  Both the gospels of Matthew and Luke listed the family tree of Jesus.  These genealogies were theological statements with different parent genealogies and different audiences.  Matthew, went from Abraham to Jesus, so that Jesus was the fulfillment of the Jewish messianic expectations.  The theme of David was important, since Joseph was called the son of David.  Matthew explained that there were 3 sections of 14 generations.  One section went from the call of Abraham to the accession of David as king.  The second grouping went from David to the Babylonian exile.  The final section went from the Exile to the coming of the Messiah.  The Gospel of Luke genealogy, on the hand, goes from Jesus to Adam to God.  Luke’s view was more universal.  Jesus could trace his roots back to God.  Luke, who had the best Greek, was apparently writing for the gentiles of the Pauline Churches.  The Son of God was a more meaningful term.  Luke spoke of the Son of Adam, the second Adam, a theme that Paul also used.  Jesus had both divine and human origins.  This was not difficult for Greeks, since their gods were always having relations with humans in their mythical stories.  Thus, there are two different genealogies for Joseph, with only one common person, David.  This left Jesus with 2 paternal grandfathers, Jacob and Heli.  Matthew listed 52 people, but Luke has 77 ancestors because he went further back in time.  It is what it is.

They spread garments and branches on the road (Mk 11:8-11:8)

“Many people

Spread their garments

On the road.

Others spread

Leafy branches

That they had cut

In the fields.”

 

καὶ πολλοὶ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν ἔστρωσαν εἰς τὴν ὁδόν, ἄλλοι δὲ στιβάδας, κόψαντες ἐκ τῶν ἀγρῶν.

 

Both Matthew, chapter 21:8, and Luke, chapter 19:36, are similar but with slight differences.  Mark said that instead of crowds, it was many people (καὶ πολλοὶ) that spread out their outer garments, cloaks, or coats on the road (τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν ἔστρωσαν εἰς τὴν ὁδόν).  Meanwhile, others were cutting down leafy branches from the surrounding fields (ἄλλοι δὲ στιβάδας, κόψαντες ἐκ τῶν ἀγρῶν), also spreading out these branches on the road.  This event has become the great Palm Sunday celebration, the triumphant entrance of Jesus into Jerusalem.  Actually, only John, chapter 12:13, called these palm branches.  This idea of laying garments on the road can be found in 2 Kings, chapter 9:13, to protect the feet of the king.  Clearly, this was an attempt to connect Jesus with the Davidic kingship.  Was Jesus to be the new king of Israel as a son of David?

Joseph and his father (Mt 1:16-1:16)

“Jacob was

The father of Joseph.

He was the husband

Of Mary,

Of whom Jesus was born,

Who is called the Messiah Christ.”

 

Ἰακὼβ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωσὴφ τὸν ἄνδρα Μαρίας, ἐξ ἧς ἐγεννήθη Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός.

 

The end of this genealogy is Joseph (Ἰωσὴφ) with his father Jacob (Ἰακὼβ).  Perhaps the names of Jacob and Joseph were an attempt to connect Jesus with the great Joseph, the son of Jacob, who brought the sons of Jacob to Egypt.  However, compared to the text in the Gospel of Luke, chapter 3, there is a difference.  Luke has Joseph called “the son of Heli,” not “the son of Jacob.”  The Greek text used the term “begat” (ἐγέννησεν) to represent the relationships between Jacob and Joseph.  It seems perfectly acceptable to simply call him the father, instead of saying “he fathered him.”  This Joseph was the husband of Mary (τὸν ἄνδρα Μαρίας), so that there was no doubt that he was the legal father of Jesus (Ἰησοῦς) and the legal husband of Mary.  The term ἄνδρα could mean man or husband, but the context here is clearly as a husband of Mary.  Instead of begetting (ἐγέννησεν) Jesus, Jesus was born (ἐξ ἧς ἐγεννήθη) into Mary.  Lest there be any question who this Jesus was, he was the one called the anointed one (ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός), the Messiah, the Christ.

The prophet Habakkuk (Dan 14:33-14:34)

“Now the prophet Habakkuk

Was in Judea.

He had made a stew.

He had broken bread

Into a bowl.

He was going

Into the field

To take it

To the reapers.

But the angel

Of the Lord

Said to Habakkuk.

‘Take the dinner

That you have

To Babylon,

To Daniel,

In the lions’ den.’”

Who is this prophet Habakkuk? It is not clear whether he was one of the minor prophets with the same name. Here, he is a prophet in Judea. Since the minor prophets were already known, this may be an attempt to connect the two prophets, Habakkuk and Daniel together. Anyway, he had some stew and bread that he was bringing to the workers reaping in the field, when an angel of the Lord appeared to him. This unnamed angel told Habakkuk to bring his dinner to Daniel in the lion’s den in Babylon. That would be quite a task since foot travel was the normal form of transportation between Judea and Babylon. Once again, there is an emphasis on eating. I would; think that the last thing that Daniel was worried about in the lion’s den would be food.

The idea of an attack (Ezek 38:14-38:14)

“Therefore,

Son of man!

Prophesy!

Say to Gog!

Thus says Yahweh God!

‘On that day,

When my people Israel

Are living securely,

You will rouse yourself.’”

Yahweh once again wanted Ezekiel to prophesize to Gog, but I am not sure how Ezekiel and Gog would connect. When the Israelites had returned to live securely on their land, Gog should rouse himself to plan an attack on them. It seemed like Yahweh wanted Gog to attack Israel.