“In the resurrection,
Will this woman be?
Had married her.”
ἡ γυνὴ οὖν ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει τίνος αὐτῶν γίνεται γυνή; οἱ γὰρ ἑπτὰ ἔσχον αὐτὴν γυναῖκα.
Luke indicated these Sadducees asked Jesus in the resurrection time (ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει), whose wife would this woman be (ἡ γυνὴ οὖν…τίνος αὐτῶν γίνεται γυνή), since all 7 brothers had married her (οἱ γὰρ ἑπτὰ ἔσχον αὐτὴν γυναῖκα). This story with the 7 brothers married to one woman was the set up for this question about the afterlife. The Sadducees asked whose wife would she be among these 7 brothers in the resurrected life? They were testing Jesus and questioning the concept of the resurrection after death. This kicker question of the Sadducees can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:28, and in Mark, chapter 12:23, almost word for word. Mark said that in the resurrection (ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει), when they would rise up again (ὅταν ἀναστῶσιν), the Sadducees wanted to know whose wife would she be (τίνος αὐτῶν ἔσται γυνή)? All 7 of these brothers had married her (οἱ γὰρ ἑπτὰ ἔσχον αὐτὴν γυναῖκα). Matthew indicated that these Sadducees asked about the future resurrection (ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει οὖν). Whose wife of the 7 brothers would she be (τίνος τῶν ἑπτὰ ἔσται γυνή)? All 7 brothers had married her (πάντες γὰρ ἔσχον αὐτήν). They assumed that the afterlife would be a continuation of this present earthly life. What would happen to people who had multiple husbands or wives? How was Jesus going to answer their tricky question? Would you be confused in the future eternal life?
“The older son called
One of the servants.
‘What is going on?’”
καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος ἕνα τῶν παίδων ἐπυνθάνετο τί ἂν εἴη ταῦτα.
This long parable story about the 2 sons can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories. Luke indicated that Jesus said that the older son called one of his male servants (καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος ἕνα τῶν παίδων) and asked or inquired of him (ἐπυνθάνετο) what was going on (τί ἂν εἴη ταῦτα)? This older hard-working son wanted to know what all the music, dancing, and celebrating was all about. How come nobody told him what was going on? Have you ever been confused about a celebration?”
“Then his disciples
This parable mean?’”
Ἐπηρώτων δὲ αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ τίς αὕτη εἴη ἡ παραβολή.
Luke said that the disciples of Jesus asked him (Ἐπηρώτων δὲ αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ) what this parable meant (τίς αὕτη εἴη ἡ παραβολή)? This question to Jesus can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 13:10, Mark, chapter 4:10, and Luke here. Only Mark made a distinction between the disciples and the 12 apostles. He also mentioned that Jesus was alone. The disciples were confused about the use of parables. Thus, they came to Jesus, since they wanted to know why he spoke to the crowds in parables. Did you understand this parable?
“This was the first registration.
It was taken
When Quirinius was
Governor of Syria.”
αὕτη ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου.
Luke noted that this first registration was taken (αὕτη ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο) when Quirinius was governing Syria (ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου). Quirinius was the legate of Syria from 6 CE-12 CE. He was born 51 BCE and died at the age of 72 in 21 CE. He did take a census or registration for tax purposes in 6 CE when he took over. This led to the revolt of Judas the Galilean and the formation of the Jewish Zealots, who opposed Roman rule. They opposed this census for the purposes of taxation by Quirinius, the Governor of Syria. The one problem is that this census took place 10 years after Herod had died. However, the birth of Jesus and John was placed during the reign of Herod. Thus, there is a problem with this dating by Luke, who may have been confused about these historical details.
Said to the angel.
‘How can this be?
As I am a virgin.’”
εἶπεν δὲ Μαριὰμ πρὸς τὸν ἄγγελον Πῶς ἔσται τοῦτο, ἐπεὶ ἄνδρα οὐ γινώσκω;
According to Luke, Mary was a little put off. She asked this Angel Gabriel (εἶπεν δὲ Μαριὰμ πρὸς τὸν ἄγγελον) how was all this going to happen, since she had not known any man sexually as a virgin (Πῶς ἔσται τοῦτο, ἐπεὶ ἄνδρα οὐ γινώσκω)? Was she questioning or confused? She was concerned about what was going to happen next.
Was much perplexed
By his words.
What sort of greeting
This might be.”
ἡ δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ λόγῳ διεταράχθη, καὶ διελογίζετο ποταπὸς εἴη ὁ ἀσπασμὸς οὗτος.
However, Luke pointed out that Mary was confused, troubled, agitated, or perplexed by these words (ἡ δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ λόγῳ διεταράχθη,) of this angel Gabriel. She was pondering or considering what this kind of greeting meant (καὶ διελογίζετο ποταπὸς εἴη ὁ ἀσπασμὸς οὗτος). She was unaccustomed to this kind of greeting from a human, let alone an angel.
They kept the matter
What the rising
From the dead
καὶ τὸν λόγον ἐκράτησαν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς συνζητοῦντες τί ἐστιν τὸ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι.
This is another unique passage of Mark, who tended to point out how these 3 trusted disciples, Peter, James, and John, were confused and still did not understand what was happening. Mark said that the 3 apostles were able to keep this matter quiet among themselves (καὶ τὸν λόγον ἐκράτησαν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς). However, they questioned or discussed this among themselves (συνζητοῦντες) what the rising from the dead (τί ἐστιν τὸ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι) was all about.
“When he was alone,
Those who were around him,
Along with the twelve,
About the parables.”
Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο κατὰ μόνας, ἠρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα τὰς παραβολάς
This question to Jesus can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 13:10, and Luke, chapter 8:9, although the others did not make the distinction about the disciples and the 12 apostles as Mark did here. They also never mentioned that Jesus was alone. Mark said that when Jesus was alone (Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο κατὰ μόνας), those followers of Jesus around him (ἠρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν), including the 12 apostles (σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα), asked him about the parables (τὰς παραβολάς). The disciples were confused about the use of parables.
“Then the disciples came.
They said to Jesus.
‘Why do you speak
To them in parables?’”
Καὶ προσελθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ Διὰ τί ἐν παραβολαῖς λαλεῖς αὐτοῖς;
This question to Jesus can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Mark, chapter 4:10, and Luke, chapter 8:9. The disciples came to Jesus (Καὶ προσελθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ). They wanted to know why Jesus spoke to the crowds in parables (εἶπαν αὐτῷ Διὰ τί ἐν παραβολαῖς λαλεῖς αὐτοῖς). The disciples were confused about the use of parables.
Made his home
In a town called
What was spoken
Through the prophets
Might be fulfilled.
‘He will be called a Nazorean.’”
καὶ ἐλθὼν κατῴκησεν εἰς πόλιν λεγομένην Ναζαρέτ· ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται.
Joseph took his family to a specific place in lower Galilee, a city called Nazareth (ἐλθὼν κατῴκησεν εἰς πόλιν λεγομένην Ναζαρέτ). Somehow, this fulfilled a prophecy (ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν) about being called a Nazarene (ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται). Some of Jesus’ followers were called Nazarenes. He was also known as Jesus of Nazareth since this was his childhood home. People have been living in Nazareth for nearly 5.000 years, with over 75,000 people today, as the largest Arab city in Israel. Nazareth may have had a population of about 400 at the time of Jesus. The town of Nazareth is about 20 miles from the Sea of Galilee and about 6 miles west of Mount Tabor, but over 100 miles from Jerusalem. It is difficult to pinpoint where this prophecy comes from. In Judges, chapter 13:2-7, there is a comment that a boy will be a Nazirite from birth, so that no one should cut his hair. Thus, he would deliver Israel from the Philistines. According to Numbers, chapter 6:1-21, there were rules laid out for those who would take the Nazirite vows. They would not drink wine, nor shave their beards. They were not to go near a corpse. They had to bring special offerings to the Temple. This separation and special consecration may have been present among other ancient people, but here it is under Mosaic Law. The normal time period, according to some rabbinic schools, was about a month of Nazirite vows, although others may have been longer. Some have referred to John the Baptist as a Nazirite. On top of that, Jesus of Nazareth may have been confused with Jesus the Nazirite. Is that the case here?