“When these things
Begin to take place,
Raise your heads!
Is drawing near.”
ἀρχομένων δὲ τούτων γίνεσθαι ἀνακύψατε καὶ ἐπάρατε τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑμῶν, διότι ἐγγίζει ἡ ἀπολύτρωσις ὑμῶν.
Among all the common elements, Luke has this unique comment of Jesus, that is not in Mark or Matthew. Jesus said that when these things begin to take place (ἀρχομένων δὲ τούτων γίνεσθαι), they were to look up (ἀνακύψατε) and raise their heads (καὶ ἐπάρατε τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑμῶν), because their redemption was drawing near (διότι ἐγγίζει ἡ ἀπολύτρωσις ὑμῶν). Only Luke concluded that their redemption or ransom was coming soon. Do you expect to be saved or redeemed?
“Now God is
Not a God
Of the dead,
But of the living.
All of them
Θεὸς δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν νεκρῶν ἀλλὰ ζώντων· πάντες γὰρ αὐτῷ ζῶσιν
Luke concluded with Jesus saying that God was not a God of the dead (Θεὸς δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν νεκρῶν), but of the living (ἀλλὰ ζώντων). All of them were alive to him (πάντες γὰρ αὐτῷ ζῶσιν). Jesus continued his explanation that can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:32, and Mark, chapter 12:27. Mark said that Jesus ended by saying that Yahweh, the Father, was not the God of the dead (οὐκ ἔστιν Θεὸς νεκρῶν) but the God of the living (ἀλλὰ ζώντων). He insisted that the Sadducees were very wrong, mistaken, or incorrect (πολὺ πλανᾶσθε). Matthew indicated that Jesus ended by saying that Yahweh, the Father, was the God of the living (ἀλλὰ ζώντων), not the dead (οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ Θεὸς νεκρῶν). Do you believe in a living God?
“I tell you!
He will quickly
When the Son of Man
Will he find faith
λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ποιήσει τὴν ἐκδίκησιν αὐτῶν ἐν τάχει. πλὴν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐλθὼν ἆρα εὑρήσει τὴν πίστιν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς;
Luke is the only synoptic writer with this parable about the widow and the bad judge. Luke indicated that Jesus concluded this story with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that God will quickly grant justice to them (ὅτι ποιήσει τὴν ἐκδίκησιν αὐτῶν ἐν τάχει). When the Son of Man comes (πλὴν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐλθὼν), will he find faith (ἆρα εὑρήσει τὴν πίστιν) on earth (ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς)? What will the Son of Man find on the judgment day? His justice will be quick. The solution, be ready at all times. Are you ready for the Son of Man to return?
Said to him.
‘If they do not listen
And the prophets,
Neither will they
Even if someone
From the dead.’”
εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ Εἰ Μωϋσέως καὶ τῶν προφητῶν οὐκ ἀκούουσιν, οὐδὲ ἐάν τις ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῇ πεισθήσονται.
This parable story about the poor man Lazarus and an unnamed rich man is only found in Luke, not in the other gospels. Luke indicated that Jesus concluded that Abraham said to the rich man (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ) that if his brothers had not listened to Moses and the prophets (Εἰ Μωϋσέως καὶ τῶν προφητῶν οὐκ ἀκούουσιν), neither would they be convinced or persuaded (πεισθήσονται), if someone rose from the dead (οὐδὲ ἐάν τις ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῇ). Abraham was clear. They had the Torah of Moses and the written teachings of the prophets. What else did they need? Thus, they would not be moved to repentance even if a dead man appeared to them. This is of course was an indication of what would happen with Jesus in his resurrection. Would you change your mind if a dead person appeared to you?
I tell you!
There is joy
In the presence
Of the angels of God
Over one sinner
οὕτως, λέγω ὑμῖν, γίνεται χαρὰ ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀγγέλων τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι.
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus concluded this short parable story about the lost drachma coin. Jesus said with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that there would be more joy in the presence of the angels of God (οὕτως, …γίνεται χαρὰ ἐνώπιον τῶν ἀγγέλων τοῦ Θεοῦ) over one sinner who repents (ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι). This is another explanation and repetition of the lost sheep story. Luke had Jesus there conclude this parable about the lost sheep. with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that there would be more joy in heaven (ὅτι οὕτως χαρὰ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἔσται) over one repentant sinner (ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι) than over the ninety-nine righteous persons (ἢ ἐπὶ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα δικαίοις) who do not need repentance (οἵτινες οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν μετανοίας). The phraseology is shorter here. Certainly, there will be great rejoicing over one sinner who repents, just like finding the lost sheep and the lost drachma. Have you ever rejoiced over a repentant sinner?
“If it bears fruit
Well and good!
But if not,
You can cut it down.”
κἂν μὲν ποιήσῃ καρπὸν εἰς τὸ μέλλον· εἰ δὲ μήγε, ἐκκόψεις αὐτήν.
Luke concluded this unique parable story. This gardener told his owner that if this fig tree would bear fruit during this time (κἂν μὲν ποιήσῃ καρπὸν εἰς τὸ), then well and good (μέλλον). However, if it did not (εἰ δὲ μήγε), that they would cut it down (ἐκκόψεις αὐτήν). There was one more chance, but only one more. Have you ever given anyone an extra chance?
“You also must be ready!
The Son of Man
At an unexpected hour.”
καὶ ὑμεῖς γίνεσθε ἕτοιμοι, ὅτι ᾗ ὥρᾳ οὐ δοκεῖτε ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεται.
Luke indicated that Jesus concluded his story about the thief in the night by saying that they must be ready (καὶ ὑμεῖς γίνεσθε ἕτοιμοι) because the Son of Man (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) would be coming (ἔρχεται) at an unexpected or unknown hour (ὅτι ᾗ ὥρᾳ οὐ δοκεῖτε). Matthew, chapter 24:44, had something similar, almost word for word, indicating a Q source. Jesus said that they had to be ready or prepared (διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ὑμεῖς γίνεσθε ἕτοιμοι) for the coming of the Son of Man (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεται) because he would be coming at an unexpected hour (ὅτι ᾗ οὐ δοκεῖτε ὥρᾳ). The Son of Man was the second coming of Jesus, the end times, the final judgment day. Are you ready for the coming of the Son of Man?
“Do not be afraid!
Will give you
Μὴ φοβοῦ, τὸ μικρὸν ποίμνιον· ὅτι εὐδόκησεν ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν δοῦναι ὑμῖν τὴν βασιλείαν.
Luke indicated that Jesus concluded these sayings about not worrying. Jesus told them, his little flock (τὸ μικρὸν ποίμνιον), not to be afraid (Μὴ φοβοῦ). Their Father’s good pleasure (ὅτι εὐδόκησεν ὁ Πατὴρ) would give them (δοῦναι ὑμῖν) the kingdom (τὴν βασιλείαν). There was no exact equivalent in Matthew, but chapter 6:34 is close. Matthew had Jesus utter this great philosophical saying at the conclusion to this section. Just worry about today, not tomorrow! This certainly fits in with all the indications about not worrying, because the heavenly Father would take care of things. However, there is no mention of God or Father here. Do not be anxious about tomorrow (μὴ οὖν μεριμνήσητε εἰς τὴν αὔριον)! Tomorrow will be anxious by itself (ἡ γὰρ αὔριον μεριμνήσει ἑαυτῆς). There are enough problems today (ἀρκετὸν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἡ κακία αὐτῆς). Pure and simple, be happy! Don’t worry! Tomorrow is another day. Are you willing to accept tomorrow without worrying?
“Then Jesus said to them.
‘The Son of Man is
Lord of the Sabbath.’”
καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.
Luke indicated that Jesus then said to them (καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς) that the Son of Man (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) is Lord of the Sabbath (Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 12:8, and Mark, chapter 2:28, probably indicating that Mark was the source of this comment. However, the other 2 gospels had more elaboration. Mark had Jesus say to those around him that the Sabbath was made for man, humans, or mankind, not humans for the Sabbath. Then he added the comment that is here in Luke that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath, which was picked up by the other two synoptic gospels. Matthew had Jesus begin with a solemn proclamation that someone greater than the Temple was here, a clear reference to Jesus himself. They did not know what the saying about mercy was all about. Matthew then used the same citation of Hosea chapter 6:6, that he had earlier in chapter 9:13. Jesus explained that he desired mercy, just as Yahweh wanted real faithful love, not mere sacrifices. Hosea wanted the Israelites to have real knowledge of God, rather than worry about burnt offerings. Thus, the Pharisees should not have condemned the innocent or guiltless ones, since Jesus and his disciples had done nothing wrong. He then concluded with the saying that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath. Jesus then could control the Sabbath, not the other way around. Instead of the Sabbath as a gift to humans, Jesus would reinterpret the laws of the Sabbath as the Lord of the Sabbath.
“The son of Enos,
The son of Seth,
The son of Adam,
The son of God.”
τοῦ Ἐνὼς τοῦ Σὴθ τοῦ Ἀδὰμ τοῦ Θεοῦ.
These names are listed in 1 Chronicles 1:2-1:3, and Genesis, chapter 5:1-8. Luke concluded his genealogy with Adam, whom he called the son of God. This terminology was not part of the Jewish tradition. Of course, this term was applied to Jesus, the Son of God. Luke said that Cainan was the son of Enos (τοῦ Ἐνὼς), the son of Seth (τοῦ Σὴθ), the son of Adam (τοῦ Ἀδὰμ), the son of God (τοῦ Θεοῦ). The grouping has the so-called first man Adam, with his son, and grandson. His son, besides Cain and Abel who are not even mentioned here, was Seth who lived to be 912 years old. Seth’s son was Enosh who lived to be 905 years old. Obviously, there were other brothers and sisters, but they are not mentioned. This genealogy repeats the theme of Genesis, chapter 1. God created humans in the image of God, male and female. When Adam had lived 130 years, he became the father of a son in his likeness, according to his image. He named this son Seth. Adam had other sons and daughters. Thus, all the days that Adam lived were 930 years. The offspring of Seth, and not Cain, were to lead to Noah. Most of these patriarchs began having children in old age, but they all had other sons and daughters. Seth became the father of Enosh. Enosh was the son of Seth, but also the father of Kenan or Cainan. Thus, Luke completed his genealogy by going from Jesus to Adam, while Matthew went from Abraham to Jesus. These 77 names of Luke represented a lucky completion or fullness of time. Jesus would not only be a Jewish leader of the tribe of Abraham, but a worldwide universal leader.