The widowed wife died (Lk 20:32-20:32)

“Finally,

The woman

Also died.”

 

ὕστερον καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἀπέθανεν.

 

Luke indicated that the Sadducees ended their story by saying that finally (ὕστερον), this woman, who was the wife of the 7 brothers, also died (καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἀπέθανεν).  This story about the death of the woman who had married 7 brothers can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:26-27, and in Mark, chapter 12:22.  Mark indicated that the Sadducees said that finally, last of all, this woman widow herself died (ἔσχατον πάντων καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἀπέθανεν).  Matthew had the Sadducees conclude that last of all, this woman widow herself died (ὕστερον δὲ πάντων ἀπέθανεν ἡ γυνή).  This was a nice simple but improbable story.  Have you ever heard of a woman who had 7 husbands?

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Who was justified? (Lk 18:14-18:14)

“I tell you!

This man went down

To his house

Justified

Rather than the other.

All

Who exalt themselves,

Will be humbled.

But all

Who humble themselves

Will be exalted.”

 

λέγω ὑμῖν, κατέβη οὗτος δεδικαιωμένος εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ παρ’ ἐκεῖνον· ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ὑψῶν ἑαυτὸν ταπεινωθήσεται, ὁ δὲ ταπεινῶν ἑαυτὸν ὑψωθήσεται.

 

Luke has Jesus conclude this parable about the Pharisee and the tax collector that is only found in this gospel.  Luke indicated that Jesus said with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that this man, the tax collector, went down to his house justified (κατέβη οὗτος δεδικαιωμένος εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ) rather than the other man, the Pharisee (παρ’ ἐκεῖνον).  Then he added a remark that all who exalt themselves (ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ὑψῶν ἑαυτὸν), will be humbled (ταπεινωθήσεται).  But all who humble themselves (ὁ δὲ ταπεινῶν ἑαυτὸν), will be exalted (ὑψωθήσεται).  This was also in in Matthew, chapter 23:12, where Jesus said that whoever exalted themselves would be humbled (Ὅστις δὲ ὑψώσει ἑαυτὸν ταπεινωθήσεται,).  On the other hand, anyone who humbled themselves would be exalted (καὶ ὅστις ταπεινώσει ἑαυτὸν ὑψωθήσεται).  This role reversal was an indication of the end times in MatthewLuke mentioned this earlier in chapter 14:11, word for word, when Jesus said that all who exalted themselves (ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ὑψῶν ἑαυτὸν) would be humbled (ταπεινωθήσεται).  On the other hand, all those who humbled themselves (καὶ ὁ ταπεινῶν ἑαυτὸν), would be exalted (ὑψωθήσεται), but within a different context also.  Do you humble or exalt yourself?

Joy over a repentant sinner (Lk 15:7-15:7)

“Just so,

I tell you!

There will be more joy

In heaven

Over one sinner

Who repents

Than over ninety-nine

Righteous persons

Who need no repentance.”

 

λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὕτως χαρὰ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἔσται ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι ἢ ἐπὶ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα δικαίοις οἵτινες οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν μετανοίας.

 

Luke had Jesus conclude this parable about the lost sheep.  Jesus said with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν) that there would be more joy in heaven (ὅτι οὕτως χαρὰ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἔσται) over one repentant sinner (ἐπὶ ἑνὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ μετανοοῦντι) than over the 99 righteous people (ἢ ἐπὶ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα δικαίοις) who do not need repentance (οἵτινες οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν μετανοίας).  This explanation of the lost sheep parable can also be found in Matthew, chapter 18:14, with some minor changes, indicating a Q source.  Luke compared this lost sheep to a repentant sinner.  In Matthew, Jesus explained that it was not the will of his heavenly Father (οὕτως οὐκ ἔστιν θέλημα ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ Πατρὸς ὑμῶν τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς) that these little ones should be lost or perish (ἵνα ἀπόληται ἓν τῶν μικρῶν τούτων).  The heavenly Father did not want to lose anyone, just like the good shepherd did not want to lose any one of his wandering sheep.  Have you ever lost someone close to you?

Yahweh is our shield (Ps 33:20-33:22)

“Our soul waits for Yahweh.

He is our help.

He is our shield.

Our heart is glad in him,

Because we trust in his holy name.

Let your steadfast love!

Yahweh!

Be upon us!

Even as we hope in you.”

Now we are back to the first person plural possessive, “our.” Our heart and soul seeks Yahweh as a help, a shield, as someone our heart is glad over. We trust in his holy name. The conclusion of this psalm is a direct appeal to Yahweh. Let your love be upon us as we hope in you. Thus we conclude this beautiful Temple psalm to Yahweh the creator.