Jesus perceived their craftiness (Lk 20:23-20:23)

“But Jesus perceived

Their craftiness.”

 

κατανοήσας δὲ αὐτῶν τὴν πανουργίαν

 

Luke said that Jesus perceived, understood, or discerned (κατανοήσας) their cunning craftiness (δὲ αὐτῶν τὴν πανουργίαν).  There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 22:18, and in Mark, chapter 12:15.  Mark said that Jesus was aware of their evil intentions or hypocrisy (ὁ δὲ εἰδὼς αὐτῶν τὴν ὑπόκρισιν).  He asked them (εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) why were they testing or tempting him (Τί με πειράζετε)?  This idea of testing or tricking Jesus was a common theme in the gospels.  Matthew said that Jesus was aware of their evil intentions (γνοὺς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν πονηρίαν αὐτῶν).  He called them hypocrites (ὑποκριταί).  He wanted to know why they were testing or tempting him (εἶπεν Τί με πειράζετε).  This idea of testing or tricking Jesus was a common theme in the Gospel of Matthew, as in chapter 4:7, at the time of his temptations at the beginning of his ministry, as well as in chapter 16:1, when the Pharisees were asking for signs, and in chapter 19:3, when they were asking about divorce.  Jesus referred to them as hypocrites in chapter 6:2-5, when they were praying in public places, and in chapter 6:16, when they were fasting, as well as in chapter 15:7, when they were dishonoring their parents in order to worship in the Temple.  Do you consider yourself crafty?

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Gain or lose your life (Lk 17:33-17:33)

“Those who try

To make

Their life secure,

Will lose it.

But those who lose

Their life

Will keep it.”

 

ὃς ἐὰν ζητήσῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ περιποιήσασθαι, ἀπολέσει αὐτήν, καὶ ὃς ἂν ἀπολέσει, ζωογονήσει αὐτήν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that those who try to make their life secure or save it (ὃς ἐὰν ζητήσῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ περιποιήσασθαι), would lose it (ἀπολέσει αὐτήν).  But those who lose their life (καὶ ὃς ἂν ἀπολέσει), would keep or preserve it (ζωογονήσει αὐτήν).  In chapter 9:24, Luke indicated that Jesus said that anyone who wanted to save his life (ὃς γὰρ ἐὰν θέλῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ σῶσαι), would lose it or have it sent away (ἀπολέσει αὐτήν).  Those who lost their life (ὃς δ’ ἂν ἀπολέσῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ) for the sake of Jesus (ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ), would save it (οὗτος σώσει αὐτήν).  Jesus told his disciples how to save their lives.  Something similar can be found in the other synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 16:25, and Mark, chapter 8:35.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that whoever wished, desired, or wanted to save his life, he would lose it.  Matthew indicated that Jesus said that whoever wished, desired, or wanted to save their life, they would lose it.  However, anyone who lost their life for the sake of Jesus, they would find their life.  This is also similar to Matthew, chapter 10:39 and John, chapter 12:25.  In order to gain your eternal life, you have to lose your life for the sake of Jesus.  Anyone who thinks that he has found his life or soul, will lose it.  On the other hand, anyone who loses their life or soul for the sake of Jesus will find their life or soul.  Thus, you have to lose your life or soul in Jesus, in order to truly live, a common theme about losing your life for Christ.  Have you lost your life in Jesus?

Your eye (Lk 11:34-11:34)

“Your eye

Is the lamp

Of your body.

If your eye

Is sound,

Your whole body

Is full of light.

But if it is evil,

Your body

Is full of darkness.”

 

ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου. ὅταν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς ᾖ, καὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτεινόν ἐστιν· ἐπὰν δὲ πονηρὸς ᾖ, καὶ τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινόν

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that their eye (ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου) was the lamp of their body (ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν).  If their eye was clear, sound, or healthy (ὅταν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς ᾖ), their whole body would be full of light (καὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτεινόν ἐστιν).  But if it was evil (ἐπὰν δὲ πονηρὸς ᾖ), their body was then full of darkness (καὶ τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινόν).  This saying of Jesus is similar to what was in Matthew, chapter 6:22-23, so that it may be from the Q source.  Matthew indicated that Jesus said that the eye was the lamp of the body (Ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ ὀφθαλμός).  If there was a healthy clear sound eye (ἐὰν οὖν ᾖ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς), then you would have a whole body full of light (ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτεινὸν ἔσται).  This is the only time that the word “ἁπλοῦς” is used in the New Testament literature.  Both Luke and Matthew used it here, since it means simple, sound, clear, or perfect.  If, on the other hand, your eye was not healthy or evil (ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρὸς ᾖ), your whole body would be full of darkness (ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινὸν ἔσται).  Notice that Matthew and Luke did not use the opposite of clear, but chose the more common word for evil, “πονηρὸς.”  Thus, you had an evil eye.  On the other hand, both Luke and Matthew used a word that appears only here, “σκοτεινὸν,” to talk about a full total darkness.  If the light that is in you is dark (εἰ οὖν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἐν σοὶ σκότος ἐστίν), that is a really great darkness (τὸ σκότος πόσον).  Light and darkness was a common theme among the early Christians.  Light was good, but darkness was evil.  The connection of light to the eye was natural, since the sense of blindness and darkness centered around the eyes.  The good-eyed person, like the good-hearted person, was compassionate, while the evil-eyed person, like a hard-hearted person, was selfish and miserly.  Do you have good eyes or evil eyes?

Your faith saves you (Lk 7:50-7:50)

“Jesus said

To the woman.

‘Your faith

Has saved you!

Go in peace!’”

 

εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα Ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε· πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην.

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said to this woman (εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα) that her faith had saved her (Ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε).  Thus, she could go or travel in peace (πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην).  Faith being a prerequisite for the forgiveness of sins was another common theme of Jesus and Luke.  Does your faith in Jesus save you?

Scripture fulfilled (Lk 4:21-4:21)

Then Jesus began

To say to them.

‘Today

This scripture

Has been fulfilled

In your hearing.’”

 

ἤρξατο δὲ λέγειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅτι Σήμερον πεπλήρωται ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν

 

This is unique to Luke, as he presented the teaching of Jesus.  Luke indicated that Jesus began to say to the assembled crowd (ἤρξατο δὲ λέγειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς) in this Nazareth synagogue, that today (ὅτι Σήμερον) this scripture has been fulfilled (πεπλήρωται ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη) in their hearing (ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν).  Scripture fulfilled was a common theme of the gospel writers.  Jesus implied that the Scripture passage he had just read referred to him.

 

Saved from enemies (Lk 1:71-1:71)

“We would be saved

From our enemies.

We would be saved

From the hand

Of all who hate us.”

 

σωτηρίαν ἐξ ἐχθρῶν ἡμῶν καὶ ἐκ χειρὸς πάντων τῶν μισούντων ἡμᾶς,

 

Luke continued Zechariah’s canticle with an instance on being saved from enemies, another common theme of the Davidic psalms.  Zechariah said that they would be saved or have salvation (σωτηρίαν) from their enemies (ἐξ ἐχθρῶν ἡμῶν), from the hand (καὶ ἐκ χειρὸς) of all those who hated them (πάντων τῶν μισούντων ἡμᾶς).  This was not about his newly born son, but the Israelites, the sons of David being safe from all their enemies.

Salvation for the House of David (Lk 1:69-1:69)

“He has raised up

A mighty savior

For us

In the house

Of his servant David.”

 

καὶ ἤγειρεν κέρας σωτηρίας ἡμῖν ἐν οἴκῳ Δαυεὶδ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ,

 

Luke had Zechariah continue with his canticle of praise.  Zechariah said that God had raised up a horn of salvation (καὶ ἤγειρεν κέρας σωτηρίας) or a mighty savior for them in the house of his servant David (ἡμῖν ἐν οἴκῳ Δαυεὶδ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ).  This was a reference to the savior Jesus rather than to his son John.  This horn of salvation was a common theme in the psalms, like in the victory Psalm 18:2, where God was David’s shield, his horn, his stronghold, and his savior.  In Psalm 89:17-24 and Psalm 75:5, the psalmist glorified in his strength, since the horn was a symbol of strength.  Clearly this strong savior was linked to the house of David.