How can David be the Lord (Mk 12:37-12:37)

“‘David himself

Calls him Lord.

So how can he be

His son?’

The large crowd

Was listening to him

With delight.”

 

αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ λέγει αὐτὸν Κύριον, καὶ πόθεν αὐτοῦ ἐστιν υἱός; Καὶ ὁ πολὺς ὄχλος ἤκουεν αὐτοῦ ἡδέως.

 

There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:35-37, and Luke, chapter 20:45.  What did David mean when he called the future Messiah Christ, a son of David?  The traditional belief was that the Messiah Christ would be the son or descendent of David.   Jesus then posed this big question.  Mark indicated that Jesus asked how can David call the Messiah Lord (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ λέγει αὐτὸν Κύριον) and yet be the son of David (καὶ πόθεν αὐτοῦ ἐστιν υἱός)?  This was a trick question.  Why would David call his future son or descendant his own Lord or master, or consider him greater?  The implication was that Jesus, the Son of Man, and descendant of David, was greater than David.  Peter, in fact, repeated this citation of Psalm 110 in his preaching in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 2:34-35, also.  Only Mark had the comment that the large crowd was listening to Jesus with delight or gladly (Καὶ ὁ πολὺς ὄχλος ἤκουεν αὐτοῦ ἡδέως).

The God of Abraham (Mk 12:26-12:26)

“As for the dead

Being raised,

Have you not read

The book of Moses?

In the story

About the bush,

How God said

To him.

‘I am the God of Abraham.

I am the God of Isaac.

I am the God of Jacob.’”

 

περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται, οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωϋσέως ἐπὶ τοῦ Βάτου πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Θεὸς λέγων Ἐγὼ ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ;

 

Jesus continued his explanation that can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:31-32, and Luke, chapter 20:37.  They all refer to Moses at the burning bush, a mysterious theophany that overwhelmed Moses, but is not explicitly mentioned here.  However, this was implied by the comment about God based on Exodus, chapter 3:6.  Mark said that the dead will rise up (περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται).  Jesus reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct book of Moses (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωϋσέως), and not “the sayings of God” as in Matthew.  Jesus then referenced this saying of Yahweh to Moses in Exodus, chapter 3:1-6, about the burning bush (ἐπὶ τοῦ Βάτου).  Yahweh God spoke to Moses saying (πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ λέγων) that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ).

You do not know scriptures (Mk 12:24-12:24)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Is this not the reason

That you are wrong?

You know neither

The scriptures

Nor the power of God.’”

 

ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οὐ διὰ τοῦτο πλανᾶσθε μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ

 

This comment or reprimand by Jesus is similar to Matthew, chapter 22:29, but not in Luke.  Mark said that Jesus responded to the Sadducees (ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by telling them that they were wrong, deceived, or led astray (Οὐ διὰ τοῦτο πλανᾶσθε).  They did not know scriptures or the writings (μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς).  They also did not know the power or purpose of God (μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ Θεοῦ).  Simply put, they were ill-informed or stupid.

I have observed them from my youth (Mk 10:20-10:20)

“This man said

To Jesus.

‘Teacher!

I have kept

All these

Since my youth.’”

 

ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτῷ Διδάσκαλε, ταῦτα πάντα ἐφυλαξάμην ἐκ νεότητός μου

 

This comment can be found in Mathew, chapter 19:20, and Luke, chapter 18:21, but slightly different, with Luke closer to MarkMark said that this man responded to Jesus (ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτῷ).  Once again, he called Jesus “Teacher (Διδάσκαλε).”  He said that he had kept or observed all these commandments (ταῦτα πάντα ἐφυλαξάμην) from his youth (ἐκ νεότητός μου).  This seems like a very forthright righteous person who was trying to do the best that he could.

Follow the commandments (Mk 10:19-10:19)

“You know

The commandments!

‘You shall not murder!

You shall not commit adultery!

You shall not steal!

You shall not bear false witness!

You shall not defraud!

Honor your father!

Honor your mother!’”

 

τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας Μὴ φονεύσῃς, Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, Μὴ κλέψῃς, Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, Μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς, Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα

 

This response of Jesus can be found in Matthew, chapter 19:17-19, and Luke, chapter 18:20, but slightly different, since Luke and Mark are closer to each other.  Mark said that Jesus gave the classic answer for those who wanted to enter eternal life.  They knew the commandments or laws (τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας).  Follow them!  Mark did not have any question about which commandments to follow.  Jesus just mentioned some of the commandments.  You shall not kill or murder (Μὴ φονεύσῃς)!  You shall not commit adultery (Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς)!  You shall not steal (Μὴ κλέψῃς)!  You shall not bear false witness (Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς)!  You shall not defraud (Μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς)!  Honor your father (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου)!  Honor your mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα)!  All of these are from the Ten Commandments in Exodus, chapter 20:12-16, and Deuteronomy, chapter 5:16-20.  Mark does not have the reminder to love your neighbor.  However, he added the comment about not defrauding others.

How can Jesus control the wind and the sea? (Mk 4:41-4:41)

“They were filled

With great awe.

They said

To one another.

‘Who then is this?

Even the wind

And the sea

Obey him.’”

 

καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν, καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἀλλήλους Τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν, ὅτι καὶ ὁ ἄνεμος καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούει αὐτῷ;

 

This comment about the power of Jesus can be found in Matthew, chapter 8:27, and Luke, chapter 8:25, in a something similar fashion.  Mark said that these male disciples of Jesus were filled with great fear or awe.  They said to one another (καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἀλλήλους) who is this man (Τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν)?  Both the winds and the seas obey or listen to him (ὅτι καὶ ὁ ἄνεμος καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούει αὐτῷ).  Jesus was the Lord of nature and weather.

Lord of the Sabbath (Mk 2:27-2:28)

“Then he said to them.

‘The Sabbath

Was made for humans,

Not humans for the Sabbath.

Thus,

The Son of Man

Is Lord

Even of the Sabbath.’”

 

καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο, καὶ οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος διὰ τὸ σάββατον·

ὥστε κύριός ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου.

 

There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 12:8, and Luke, chapter 6:5, probably indicating that Mark was the source of this comment.  Mark had Jesus say to those around him (καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς) that the Sabbath was made for man, humans, or mankind (Τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο,), not humans for the Sabbath (καὶ οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος διὰ τὸ σάββατον).  Then he added the comment that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath (ὥστε κύριός ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου) that was picked up by the other two synoptic gospels.  Jesus then could control the Sabbath, not the other way around.  Instead, the Sabbath was a gift to humans.  Jesus, the Son of Man, would reinterpret the laws of the Sabbath as the Lord of the Sabbath.

Joseph gets the body of Jesus (Mt 27:58-27:58)

“Joseph went to Pilate.

He asked for

The body of Jesus.

Then Pilate ordered it

To be given to him.”

 

οὗτος προσελθὼν τῷ Πειλάτῳ ᾐτήσατο τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ. τότε ὁ Πειλᾶτος ἐκέλευσεν ἀποδοθῆναι.

 

This is similar to Mark, chapter 15:43-45, but more expanded on the part of Pilate.  Luke, chapter 23:52, and John, chapter 19:38, simply have this short statement, without any comment from Pilate.  Matthew said that this Joseph of Arimathea went to Pilate (οὗτος προσελθὼν τῷ Πειλάτῳ).  He asked for the body of Jesus (ᾐτήσατο τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ).  Then Pilate ordered or commanded that the body be given to Joseph (τότε ὁ Πειλᾶτος ἐκέλευσεν ἀποδοθῆναι).  Thus, the body of Jesus left the control of the Roman and the Jewish authorities.  However, there was no mention of the bodies of the other two robbers who had been crucified with Jesus.

Wrong times (Mt 24:20-24:20)

“Pray that your flight

May not be

In the winter

Or on a Sabbath.”

 

προσεύχεσθε δὲ ἵνα μὴ γένηται ἡ φυγὴ ὑμῶν χειμῶνος μηδὲ σαββάτῳ·

 

Mark, chapter 13:18, mentions only the problem of winter, while Luke does not mention a bad time at all.  Jesus said to pray (προσεύχεσθε δὲ) that their flight would not be in the winter (ἵνα μὴ γένηται ἡ φυγὴ ὑμῶν χειμῶνος) or on a Sabbath (μηδὲ σαββάτῳ).  Matthew added the comment about the Sabbath since he considered himself and the followers of Jesus as faithful Jews.

The Pharisees regroup (Mt 22:34-22:34)

“When the Pharisees

Heard

That Jesus had silenced

The Sadducees,

They gathered together.”

 

Οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἀκούσαντες ὅτι ἐφίμωσεν τοὺς Σαδδουκαίους, συνήχθησαν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό,

 

This comment is unique to Matthew, who did not like the Pharisees.  Thus, when the Pharisees heard (Οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἀκούσαντες) that Jesus had silenced or muzzled the Sadducees (ὅτι ἐφίμωσεν τοὺς Σαδδουκαίους), they gathered together to plan their next step against Jesus (συνήχθησαν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό).