Redemption is coming (Lk 21:28-21:28)

“When these things

Begin to take place,

Look up!

Raise your heads!

Your redemption

Is drawing near.”

 

ἀρχομένων δὲ τούτων γίνεσθαι ἀνακύψατε καὶ ἐπάρατε τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑμῶν, διότι ἐγγίζει ἡ ἀπολύτρωσις ὑμῶν.

 

Among all the common elements, Luke has this unique comment of Jesus, that is not in Mark or Matthew.  Jesus said that when these things begin to take place (ἀρχομένων δὲ τούτων γίνεσθαι), they were to look up (ἀνακύψατε) and raise their heads (καὶ ἐπάρατε τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑμῶν), because their redemption was drawing near (διότι ἐγγίζει ἡ ἀπολύτρωσις ὑμῶν).  Only Luke concluded that their redemption or ransom was coming soon.  Do you expect to be saved or redeemed?

Jesus speaks (Lk 20:45-20:46)

“In the hearing

Of all the people,

Jesus spoke

To his disciples.”

 

Ἀκούοντος δὲ παντὸς τοῦ λαοῦ εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς

 

Luke said that Jesus spoke to his disciples (εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς), but within the hearing of all the people (Ἀκούοντος δὲ παντὸς τοῦ λαοῦ.  Matthew, chapter 23:1, indicated that Jesus was speaking (Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐλάλησεν) to the crowds (τοῖς ὄχλοις) and his disciples (καὶ τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ) at the same time.  Mark, chapter 12:37, simply had the comment that a large crowd was listening to Jesus with delight (Καὶ ὁ πολὺς ὄχλος ἤκουεν αὐτοῦ ἡδέως).  In other words, Jesus was speaking to his disciples, but openly enough that the crowds around him could hear it.  Have you ever been someplace where you could hear what people were speaking about?

Kill my enemies (Lk 19:27-19:27)

“But as for these enemies

Of mine,

Who did not want me

To be king

Over them,

Bring them here!

Slaughter them

In my presence!”

 

πλὴν τοὺς ἐχθρούς μου τούτους τοὺς μὴ θελήσαντάς με βασιλεῦσαι ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ἀγάγετε ὧδε καὶ κατασφάξατε αὐτοὺς ἔμπροσθέν μου.

 

Luke uniquely has this comment of Jesus about the nobleman talking about his enemies (πλὴν τοὺς ἐχθρούς μου τούτους) who did not want him to be their king (τοὺς μὴ θελήσαντάς με βασιλεῦσαι ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς).  He wanted them brought to him (ἀγάγετε ὧδε) so that they could kill them in his presence (καὶ κατασφάξατε αὐτοὺς ἔμπροσθέν μου).  Once again, there is a unique word in Luke, κατασφάξατε, meaning to kill off, slaughter, or slay, that is not found in any of the other Greek biblical literature.  This will be a bloodbath.  This concludes the comments that were in verse 14, earlier in this chapter.  There was nothing about this killing in Matthew, only the weeping and gnashing of teeth.  Perhaps Luke combined two stories here.  Do you punish people who do not like you?

The commandments (Lk 18:20-18:20)

“You know the commandments.

‘Do not commit adultery!

Do not murder!

Do not steal!

Do not bear false witness!

Honor your father

And mother!’”

 

τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, Μὴ φονεύσῃς, Μὴ κλέψῃς, Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to this ruler that he knew the commandments (τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας).  Then he listed a few that were “Do not commit adultery (Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς,)!”  “Do not murder (Μὴ φονεύσῃς)!”  “Do not steal (Μὴ κλέψῃς)!”  “Do not bear false witness (Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς)!”  “Honor your father and your mother (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα)!”  Thus, Jesus emphasized which commandments he wanted this man to keep.  This can also be found in Mark, chapter 10:19, and Matthew, chapter 19:17-19, but slightly different, since Luke and Mark are closer to each other.  Mark said that Jesus gave the classic answer for those who wanted to enter eternal life.  They knew the commandments or laws (τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας).  Follow them!  Mark did not have any question about which commandments to follow.  Jesus just mentioned some of the commandments.  You shall not kill or murder (Μὴ φονεύσῃς)!  You shall not commit adultery (Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς)!  You shall not steal (Μὴ κλέψῃς)!  You shall not bear false witness (Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς)!  You shall not defraud (Μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς)!  Honor your father (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου)!  Honor your mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα)!  All of these are from the Ten Commandments in Exodus, chapter 20:12-16, and Deuteronomy, chapter 5:16-20.  Mark added the comment about not defrauding others that was not in Luke.  In Matthew, this person asked Jesus which commandments (λέγει αὐτῷ Ποίας) should he follow.  Thus, Jesus responded to him (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη) directly citing which commandments.  You shall not kill or murder (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη)!  You shall not commit adultery (Οὐ μοιχεύσεις)!  You shall not steal (Οὐ κλέψεις)!  You shall not bear false witness (Οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις)!  Honor your father (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα)!  Honor your mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα)!  All of these are the same as in Mark and Luke.  However, Matthew added something not in the other two gospel stories.  This man was to love or esteem his neighbor as himself (καὶ Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν), that was from Leviticus, chapter 19:18.  Do you think that the Ten Commandments are important?

Will God delay? (Lk 18:7-18:7)

“Will not God

Grant justice

To his chosen ones

Who cry to him

Day and night?

Will he delay long

In helping them?”

 

ὁ δὲ Θεὸς οὐ μὴ ποιήσῃ τὴν ἐκδίκησιν τῶν ἐκλεκτῶν αὐτοῦ τῶν βοώντων αὐτῷ ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτός, καὶ μακροθυμεῖ ἐπ’ αὐτοῖς;

 

Luke is the only synoptic writer with this parable about the widow and the bad judge.  Luke had Jesus bring this parable to a conclusion with a comment about God.  He wondered whether God (ὁ δὲ Θεὸς) would grant justice (οὐ μὴ ποιήσῃ τὴν ἐκδίκησιν) to his chosen ones (τῶν ἐκλεκτῶν αὐτοῦ) who cried to him (τῶν βοώντων αὐτῷ) day and night (ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτός)?  Would God delay long in helping them (καὶ μακροθυμεῖ ἐπ’ αὐτοῖς)?  The comparison was explicit.  Jesus said that God would grant justice to his chosen ones who petitioned him day and night.  Their persistence prayer would pay off.  God would not delay in helping them and answering their prayers for justice.  Has God answered your persistent prayers?

The eagles will be gathered (Lk 17:37-17:37)

“Then they asked Jesus.

‘Where?

Lord!’

He said to them,

‘Where the corpse is,

There the vultures

Will gather.’”

 

καὶ ἀποκριθέντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Ποῦ, Κύριε; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ὅπου τὸ σῶμα, ἐκεῖ καὶ οἱ ἀετοὶ ἐπισυναχθήσονται.

 

Luke indicated that they asked Jesus (καὶ ἀποκριθέντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ), addressing him as Lord (Κύριε), where was this going to happen (Ποῦ)?  Jesus said to them (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) that where the body or the corpse was (Ὅπου τὸ σῶμα), there the vultures would gather (ἐκεῖ καὶ οἱ ἀετοὶ ἐπισυναχθήσονται).  This was something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:28, perhaps indicating a Q source.  However, this saying was after the comment about the Son of Man coming like lightning.  Jesus, via Matthew, said that wherever the corpse was (ὅπου ἐὰν ᾖ τὸ πτῶμα), there the vultures would gather (ἐκεῖ συναχθήσονται οἱ ἀετοί).  The vultures or eagles were a reference to the Roman soldiers with their eagle symbols.  Thus, Luke ended the remarks of Jesus about the end times.  Are you comfortable talking about the end of the world?

Tell no one (Lk 9:21-9:21)

“Jesus sternly ordered them.

He commanded them

Not to tell anyone.”

 

ὁ δὲ ἐπιτιμήσας αὐτοῖς παρήγγειλεν μηδενὶ λέγειν τοῦτο,

 

Luke said that Jesus sternly ordered them (ὁ δὲ ἐπιτιμήσας αὐτοῖς) and commanded them (παρήγγειλεν) not to tell anyone (μηδενὶ λέγειν τοῦτο).  This warning about the messianic secret can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 16:20, Mark, chapter 8:30, and here.  However, this warning came right after Peter’s response in Mark and Luke, since they did not have the unique Matthew comment about the reward for Peter.  Jesus, in some ironic way, did not want the people to know that he was the Messiah or the Christ.  Thus, the name “Jesus Christ” did not take hold until after his death and resurrection.  Mark simply said that Jesus sternly ordered, instructed, or charged his disciples that they were not to tell anyone that Jesus was the Christ or the Israelite Messiah.  Matthew also said that Jesus sternly ordered, instructed, or charged his disciples so that they were not to tell anyone that he was the Christ or the Israelite Messiah, just like he had done earlier.  This messianic secret was even stronger in Mark.  Only the elite followers of Jesus knew that he was the Christ messiah, much like a gnostic special knowledge.  How much knowledge do you have about Jesus?