Luke indicated that Jesus asked his disciples (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς) where was their faith (Ποῦ ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν)? They were afraid (φοβηθέντες), but amazed (δὲ ἐθαύμασαν) at the same time. They said to one another (λέγοντες πρὸς ἀλλήλους). Who is this (Τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν) that commands (ἐπιτάσσει) even the winds (ὅτι καὶ τοῖς ἀνέμοις) and the water (καὶ τῷ ὕδατι)? Both the winds and the water obey him (καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ). This rebuke of Jesus can also be found in Matthew, chapter 8:26-27, and Mark, chapter 4:40-41, in a somewhat similar manner. Mark said that Jesus then turned to his followers and asked them why they were afraid? Was it because they still had no faith? Jesus called out his disciples for their lack of faith or trust, while showing his great power. Perhaps, this was a slap at some of the early Christian followers of Jesus, who lacked a strong belief in him. These male disciples of Jesus were filled with great fear or awe. They said to one another who is this man? Both the winds and the seas obey or listen to him. Matthew said that these disciples of Jesus marveled or were amazed at what they had just seen take place. They wondered out loud what kind of man that Jesus was? Both the winds and the seas obey him. Jesus was the Lord of nature and weather. Do you believe that Jesus can control the winds and the water?
Interesting enough, Luke has the friends of the centurion speak in the first person singular to indicate that these are the exact words of the centurion. The centurion said that he was a man who was appointed by authority (καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ ἄνθρωπός εἰμι ὑπὸ ἐξουσίαν τασσόμενος) with soldiers under him (ἔχων ὑπ’ ἐμαυτὸν στρατιώτας). He would say to one go (καὶ λέγω τούτῳ Πορεύθητι) and he went (καὶ πορεύεται). He would say to another come (καὶ ἄλλῳ Ἔρχου) and he came (καὶ ἔρχεται). He would tell his slave to do something (καὶ τῷ δούλῳ μου Ποίησον τοῦτο) and he would do it (καὶ ποιεῖ). This saying of the centurion is exactly the same as in Matthew, chapter 8:9, perhaps indicating a Q source. In Matthew, the Roman centurion spoke for himself directly to Jesus, but the message was the same. This centurion understood authority, since he was a Roman solider under the authority of his superiors and yet at the same time, he had soldiers under him. Thus, if he said to any of them to go or come, they would do precisely that. The same would be true of his slaves who would do whatever he told them to do. Are you willing to obey the commands of Jesus?
This is very similar, almost word for word, to Mark, chapter 1:27. Luke said, that amazement or astonishment came over all of them (καὶ ἐγένετο θάμβος ἐπὶ πάντας). This was a common reaction that people had to the activities of Jesus. The people were saying or speaking to one another (καὶ συνελάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους λέγοντες). What is this new teaching with authority (Τίς ὁ λόγος οὗτος, ὅτι ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ)? Thus, he commands with power even the unclean spirits (καὶ δυνάμει ἐπιτάσσει τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις πνεύμασιν), so that they come out of that person (καὶ ἐξέρχονται). Jesus seemed to have some special spiritual powers that no one else had ever seen.
This parable is similar to Matthew, chapter 25:14 and to Luke, chapter 19:12-27, where the story is about the power of a nobleman with 10 slaves, but the basic concept is the same. Mark indicated that Jesus said that the end times would be like a man going on a journey (ὡς ἄνθρωπος ἀπόδημος). He left his house (ἀφεὶς τὴν οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ). He gave his slaves the authority (καὶ δοὺς τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ τὴν ἐξουσίαν) to perform their own individual tasks (ἑκάστῳ τὸ ἔργον αὐτοῦ). He commanded a doorkeeper to stand watch over this whole situation (καὶ τῷ θυρωρῷ ἐνετείλατο ἵνα γρηγορῇ).
This is very similar, almost word for word, to Luke, chapter 4:36. Mark said, that they were all amazed or astonished (καὶ ἐθαμβήθησαν ἅπαντες), a common word people used to describe the activities of Jesus. They kept on saying or asking each other, questioning among themselves (ὥστε συνζητεῖν αὐτοὺς λέγοντας). What is this new teaching with authority (Τί ἐστιν τοῦτο; διδαχὴ καινή κατ’ ἐξουσίαν·)? Thus, he commands even the unclean spirits (καὶ τοῖς πνεύμασι τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις ἐπιτάσσει) so that they listen or obey him (καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ). Jesus seemed to have some special spiritual powers that no one else had ever seen.
The 2nd century apostolic writers had a loose connection to the original apostles. Some of these early 2nd century writings were occasionally considered part of the canonical biblical writings. This post-apostolic group lived after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 CE. These authors included Clement of Rome (40-101 CE) and his writings, as well as the so-called Second Letter of Clement, a 2nd century sermon, but not from Clement. There also was Ignatius of Antioch (50-117 CE) with his letters, and the 2nd century Pseudo-Barnabas letter. From the late 1st century, the Didache, the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, has intrigued scholars. The 2nd century Shepherd of Hermas, has an apocalyptic document that included visions, commands, mandates, and parables or similitudes. Theophilus of Antioch (115-180 CE) and Melito of Sardis (+190 CE), an important bishop of Asia Minor, were writing apologists for Christianity. Clement of Alexandria (150-215 CE) and his pupil Origen (185-254 CE) played an important role in the developing Christian theology in Alexandria. Justin the martyr (100-165 CE) gave a great description of the Christian activities. Irenaeus (140-202 CE), a disciple of the martyr Bishop Polycarp of Smyrna, wrote against various early Christian heretics.
The Law, the Torah, or the Pentateuch, consisted of first five books that were developed over a number of years, but firmly established around 400 BCE. The five books of the Pentateuch include Genesis, a 10th-5th century BCE writing about the pre-existence of the Israelites, and the particular stories of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph. The Exodus, finished around 450 BCE, recalls the story of Moses and how he led the Israelites out of Egypt for years in the desert. Leviticus and Numbers, worked on between 550-400 BCE, lay out the particular codes, rules and regulations for the Israelites, as well the numbers of people that were involved in the exodus from Egypt. Deuteronomy, developed in the 7th-6th century BCE, told the story of Moses in the wilderness with emphasis on the laws of the heart. This Law or Torah explained the early or pre-history of the Israelites before they entered the promised land. These books also contained all the commands, statutes, or rules for the Israelites after they entered the promised land. All further Jewish developments were based on the Torah or the Law.
Yahweh gave Ezekiel, the son of man, a series of commands to do another symbolic action. Ezekiel was to take a sharp sword and use it as a barber’s razor on his head and beard. It must have been common for men to have a full beard with a full head of hair. Then Ezekiel was to weigh all his hair and divide it up.
This author notes that the sun, the moon, and the stars are bright. However, they do what they are told to do. The same is true about lightning flashes and the wind. It blows wherever God commands it. The clouds go all over the whole world as they carry out God’s commands also. Fire does what it is ordered to do. How can you compare these great works of obedient nature to these false idol gods, since they have no power. They cannot solve cases or do good for any humans. How can you call them gods, since you know that they are not gods? Thus there is no need to fear them.
Yahweh via Jeremiah has a series of commands. Get out of town! They were to get out of the city of Babylon. They were to get out of the country of the Chaldeans. They should act like male goats, leading their flocks, not like lost sheep.