‘I have kept
Since my youth.’”
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Ταῦτα πάντα ἐφύλαξα ἐκ νεότητος.
Luke indicated that this ruler replied (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν) that he had kept all these commandments (Ταῦτα πάντα ἐφύλαξα) since his youth (ἐκ νεότητος). This comment can also be found in Mark, chapter 10:20, and Matthew, chapter 19:20, but slightly different, with Luke closer to Mark, who indicated that this man responded to Jesus (ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτῷ). Once again, he called Jesus “Teacher (Διδάσκαλε).” He said that he had kept or observed all these commandments (ταῦτα πάντα ἐφυλαξάμην) from his youth (ἐκ νεότητός μου). In Matthew, this person was identified as a young man, who responded to Jesus (λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ νεανίσκος). He said that he had kept or observed all these commandments (Ταῦτα πάντα ἐφύλαξα). Mark and Luke added “from his youth,” but in Matthew he was still a young man. What was he still lacking (τί ἔτι ὑστερῶ)? This seems like a very forthright righteous person who was trying to do the best that he could. Have you been a faithful commandment follower since your youth?
A certain lawyer
To test Jesus.
What must I do
To inherit eternal life?’”
Καὶ ἰδοὺ νομικός τις ἀνέστη ἐκπειράζων αὐτὸν λέγων Διδάσκαλε, τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω;
Luke said that just then, a certain lawyer stood up (Καὶ ἰδοὺ νομικός τις ἀνέστη) to test Jesus (ἐκπειράζων αὐτὸν). He said, calling Jesus a teacher (λέγων Διδάσκαλε), what did he have to do to inherit eternal life (τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω)? Although there was a question like this in all 3 synoptics, there are nuanced differences. Matthew, chapter 22:35-36, had a Pharisee lawyer ask the question about the greatest commandment, and not about eternal life. Mark, chapter 12:28, had a Scribe, not a Pharisee lawyer ask the same question about the greatest commandment. In Luke, here, there was an unnamed lawyer, probably an expert in the Mosaic law, who wanted to know about how to gain eternal life. Mark had this unnamed Scribe approach Jesus, because he had heard the disciples discussing, disputing, or arguing with each other. He saw how Jesus had answered their questions so well. He was not there to test him, as here in Luke and Matthew, but he did question Jesus. Matthew had a lawyer, who was a Pharisee, question Jesus to explicitly test him. This Pharisee lawyer probably was someone skilled in the Mosaic law. He addressed Jesus in a very respectful tone calling him “Teacher” or rabbi (Διδάσκαλε), like Luke. He wanted to know which commandment of the law was the greatest, since there were 613 commandments in late Judaism. Thus, it would seem like a legitimate question with so many commandments or laws. Luke had the question about eternal life, but the other 2 synoptics questioned Jesus about the most important commandment. These questions were related, but not the same. 3 different people, with different motives, posed this question. Do you question people to learn something or to test them?
“She came up
Of his clothes.
Her bleeding stopped.”
προσελθοῦσα ὄπισθεν ἥψατο τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ, καὶ παραχρῆμα ἔστη ἡ ῥύσις τοῦ αἵματος αὐτῆς.
Luke said that this woman came up behind Jesus (ροσελθοῦσα ὄπισθεν). She touched the fringe of his cloak (ἥψατο τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ). Instantly, her bleeding stopped (καὶ παραχρῆμα ἔστη ἡ ῥύσις τοῦ αἵματος αὐτῆς). This woman touching Jesus can also be found in Matthew, chapter 9:21, and Mark, chapter 5:27-29, so that Mark might be the source. Mark said that this woman had heard about Jesus, so that she came up behind him with the crowd all around Jesus. She wanted to touch his cloak, with no mention of the fringes or edges of Jesus’ clothes. She was saying to herself, that if she only touched his cloak or garment, she would be healed or cured. Immediately, her flowing blood dried up or stopped when she touched it. She realized in her body that she was healed from her disease. This woman was aware of what was happening to her own body as she was healed. Matthew said that she came up behind Jesus, because she wanted to touch the fringe or the tassel edge of his cloak. These fringes (κρασπέδου) or bottom tassels often reminded people about the 10 commandments. She was thinking to herself, that if she only touched his cloak or garment, she would be healed or cured. She had a plan to help herself by touching the garment of Jesus. Have you ever tried to touch someone in a crowd?
“Both of them
All the commandments
Of the Lord.”
ἦσαν δὲ δίκαιοι ἀμφότεροι ἐναντίον τοῦ Θεοῦ, πορευόμενοι ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ἐντολαῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν τοῦ Κυρίου ἄμεμπτοι
Luke continued his unique portrayal of Zechariah and Elizabeth as righteous people (ἦσαν δὲ δίκαιοι ἀμφότεροι) before God (ἐναντίον τοῦ Θεοῦ). As they were descendants of Aaron, the expectations for their behavior were higher than other Israelites. They were blameless (ἄμεμπτοι). They walked or followed all the commandments, statutes, ordinances and regulations of the Lord (πορευόμενοι ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ἐντολαῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν τοῦ Κυρίου). They were upright people, pillars of the community. They were faithful followers of the Jewish Law. Who could ask for anything more?
“One of the Scribes
He heard them
Disputing with one another.
Seeing that Jesus
Had answered them well,
He asked him.
Is the first of all of them?”
Καὶ προσελθὼν εἷς τῶν γραμματέων, ἀκούσας αὐτῶν συνζητούντων, εἰδὼς ὅτι καλῶς ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς, ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν Ποία ἐστὶν ἐντολὴ πρώτη πάντων;
This is similar to Matthew, chapter 22:34, but there the question was presented by a Pharisee lawyer, not a Scribe. In Luke, chapter 10:25, there was an unnamed lawyer who wanted to know how to gain eternal life. Here, Mark has an unnamed Scribe approach Jesus (Καὶ προσελθὼν εἷς τῶν γραμματέων) because he had heard the disciples discussing, disputing, or arguing with each other (ἀκούσας αὐτῶν συνζητούντων). He saw how Jesus had answered their questions very well (εἰδὼς ὅτι καλῶς ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς). He was not there to test him, but he did question Jesus (ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν). He wanted to know which commandment was the first or the greatest (Ποία ἐστὶν ἐντολὴ πρώτη πάντων), since there were 613 commandments in late Judaism. Thus, it would seem like a legitimate question with so many commandments or laws.
“This man said
I have kept
Since my youth.’”
ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτῷ Διδάσκαλε, ταῦτα πάντα ἐφυλαξάμην ἐκ νεότητός μου
This comment can be found in Mathew, chapter 19:20, and Luke, chapter 18:21, but slightly different, with Luke closer to Mark. Mark said that this man responded to Jesus (ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτῷ). Once again, he called Jesus “Teacher (Διδάσκαλε).” He said that he had kept or observed all these commandments (ταῦτα πάντα ἐφυλαξάμην) from his youth (ἐκ νεότητός μου). This seems like a very forthright righteous person who was trying to do the best that he could.
This second narrative centered around the Sermon on the Mount and the famous so-called Beatitudes. The first beatitude was about poverty, while the second beatitude was about mourning. The third beatitude was about the meek or the humble. The fourth beatitude was about righteousness. The fifth beatitude was on mercy, while the sixth beatitude was about the pure of heart. The seventh beatitude was on peacemakers, while the eighth beatitude was on persecution. There was a grand blessing for the persecuted Christians, who were the salt of the earth and the light of the world. They had to value and become the lighted lamp.
Next came the law and the prophets. The law with all its commandments remained. The righteous ones would not murder, nor would they get angry with insults. They would offer their gifts at the Temple. They would pay their debts and not commit adultery. Jesus warned against the sinning eye and the sinning right hand. He favored the traditional divorce stance, but warned about marrying a divorced woman. They should not bear false witness, nor swear at all, since they should have a simple speech. No longer was it an eye for an eye, but rather turn the other cheek with unusual kindness. They were to love their enemies and their heavenly Father with a perfect love.
The followers of Jesus should fast and pray. We should have piety with almsgiving. Our charity and prayer should be secret with short prayers. Thus, there was the famous “Our Father” prayer. The first part of the Lord’s prayer was about God the Father. The second part of the Lord’s prayer was about our human problems. We should seek forgiveness and fast in secret. We should not want earthly treasures, but heavenly treasures. We need to have a healthy eye because we cannot serve two masters.
We should trust in Providence. We do not need to worry. Just look at the birds who do not worry. The lilies of the field have more beauty than Solomon in all his glory. Seek the kingdom of heaven first and you will not have to worry about tomorrow.
As far as judgment was concerned, do not judge the speck in the eye of your neighbor. Be careful with your holy treasures. Be seekers and give to your sons. Pray to your heavenly Father and follow the golden rule. The gate was narrow and there were many false prophets. Know them by their fruits. The sound tree has good fruits. Cut down the bad tree. Seek the kingdom of heaven. Stay away from evildoers. Wise men build on a rock foundation, while the foolish ones build on a sand foundation. The crowds were astonished at the authority of Jesus.