Why had Mary come to Elizabeth? (Lk 1:43-1:43)

“Why has this happened

To me?

The mother

Of my Lord

Comes to me!”

 

καὶ πόθεν μοι τοῦτο ἵνα ἔλθῃ ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Κυρίου μου πρὸς ἐμέ;

 

Luke said that Elizabeth wanted to know why this was happening to her (καὶ πόθεν μοι τοῦτο).  Why was the Mary, the mother of the Lord (ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Κυρίου μου), coming to her (ἵνα ἔλθῃ…πρὸς ἐμέ)?  Elizabeth recognized the special role of Mary as the mother of the Messiah, the divine Lord.  What was she doing visiting her?

You will know that the end is near (Mk 13:29-13:29)

“So also,

When you see

These things

Taking place,

You should know

That he is near,

At the very gates.”

 

οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς, ὅταν ἴδητε ταῦτα γινόμενα, γινώσκετε ὅτι ἐγγύς ἐστιν ἐπὶ θύραις.

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 24:33, and in Luke, chapter 21:31, except that Luke mentioned the Kingdom of God was near, not he or it was near.  Mark said that Jesus explained that when they saw these things like the budding trees, they should know that he, the Son of Man, was near.  The end times were coming.  When they saw all these things happening (οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ὅταν ἴδητε ταῦτα γινόμενα), they should know that the end or he was near, at the gates to their city or the doors to their houses (γινώσκετε ὅτι ἐγγύς ἐστιν ἐπὶ θύραις).  There would be these prior signs indicating what was to come.

 

Elijah restores things (Mk 9:12-9:12)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Elijah is indeed

Coming first

To restore all things.”

 

ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτοῖς Ἡλείας μὲν ἐλθὼν πρῶτον ἀποκαθιστάνει πάντα·

 

The role of Elijah can be found also in Matthew, chapter 17:11, as well as here in Mark.  Mark said that Jesus did not disagree with the Scribes.  He responded to his disciples (ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτοῖς) by reiterating that Elijah was indeed coming first to restore all things (Ἡλείας μὲν ἐλθὼν πρῶτον ἀποκαθιστάνει πάντα).  There is no doubt that the role of Elijah, a 9th century BCE northern Israel prophet, dominated late first century Jewish thought.

Going to a deserted place (Mk 6:31-6:32)

“Jesus said to them,

‘Come away

To a deserted place

All by yourselves!

Rest a while!’

Many were coming

And going.

They had no leisurely time

To eat.

They went away

In the boat

To a deserted place

By themselves.”

 

καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Δεῦτε ὑμεῖς αὐτοὶ κατ’ ἰδίαν εἰς ἔρημον τόπον καὶ ἀναπαύσασθε ὀλίγον. ἦσαν γὰρ οἱ ἐρχόμενοι καὶ οἱ ὑπάγοντες πολλοί, καὶ οὐδὲ φαγεῖν εὐκαίρουν.

καὶ ἀπῆλθον ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ εἰς ἔρημον τόπον κατ’ ἰδίαν.

 

This opening to the multiplication of the loaves story can be found in Matthew, chapter 14:13, and Luke, chapter 9:10.  Jesus wanted to get away to a deserted place in a boat.  Mark related that Jesus said to them (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς) to come away to a deserted place all by themselves (Δεῦτε ὑμεῖς αὐτοὶ κατ’ ἰδίαν εἰς ἔρημον τόπον).  He wanted his disciples and apostles to rest for a while (καὶ ἀναπαύσασθε ὀλίγον), to take it easy.  Many people were coming and going (ἦσαν γὰρ οἱ ἐρχόμενοι καὶ οἱ ὑπάγοντες πολλοί), so that they no leisure time to eat (καὶ οὐδὲ φαγεῖν εὐκαίρουν).  Thus, they went away (καὶ ἀπῆλθον) in the boat (ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ) to a deserted place by themselves (εἰς ἔρημον τόπον κατ’ ἰδίαν).  Jesus was concerned about the apostles’ mental state.  He wanted them to have some down time.

Fasting later (Mk 2:20-2:20)

“The days will come,

When the bridegroom

Is taken away

From them.

Then they will fast

On that day.”

 

ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ τότε νηστεύσουσιν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ.

 

Luke, chapter 5:35, and Matthew, chapter 9:15, are word for word similar to Mark, so that Mark might be the source of this saying of Jesus.  Mark remarked that Jesus said that the days were coming (ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι) when the bridegroom, Jesus, would be taken away from them (ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος).  Thus, after his death, then they would fast in those days (καὶ τότε νηστεύσουσιν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ).  Fasting would come when Jesus was gone.

The preaching of John the Baptist (Mk 1:7-1:7)

“John proclaimed.

‘The one who is

More powerful

Than I,

Is coming after me.

I am not worthy

To stoop down

And untie

The tong

Of his sandals.’”

 

καὶ ἐκήρυσσεν λέγων Ἔρχεται ὁ ἰσχυρότερός μου ὀπίσω μου, οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς κύψας λῦσαι τὸν ἱμάντα τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτοῦ.

 

Mark and Matthew, chapter 3:11, are similar in their exposition of the preaching of John the Baptist.  However, there was no mention of a baptism of repentance here as in Matthew.  Also, Matthew had John unfit to carry the sandal rather than untie the sandal.  Luke, chapter 3:16-17, had John the Baptist not preaching, but responding to questions about whether he was the Messiah.  Luke, as well as John, chapter 1:27, also had John speak about being unfit to untie the tong or strap of his sandals.  John the Baptist was anticipating a messianic figure greater than himself.  He was the precursor or forerunner of Jesus, so that sometimes he was also identified with the prophet Elijah.  Mark said that John proclaimed (καὶ ἐκήρυσσεν λέγων) with a messianic tone that one more powerful than him was coming after him (Ἔρχεται ὁ ἰσχυρότερός μου ὀπίσω μου).  He was not worthy or fit to stoop down (οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς κύψας) and untie the tong or the strap of his sandals (λῦσαι τὸν ἱμάντα τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτοῦ).  John saw himself as subservient to the Messiah to come.

Jesus responds (Mt 26:63-26:64)

“But Jesus was silent.

Then the high priest

Said to him.

‘I put you under oath

Before the living God!

Tell us!

If you are the Christ,

The Messiah,

The Son of God?’

Jesus said to him.

‘You have said so.

But I tell you!

From now on

You will see

The Son of Man

Seated at the right hand

Of Power.

He will be coming

On the clouds of heaven.’”

 

ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἐσιώπα. καὶ ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἐξορκίζω σε κατὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος ἵνα ἡμῖν εἴπῃς εἰ σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ.

λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Σὺ εἶπας· πλὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπ’ ἄρτι ὄψεσθε τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καθήμενον ἐκ δεξιῶν τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ ἐρχόμενον ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:61-62.  In Luke, chapter 22:67-69, there is something similar, but there is nothing like this in John, chapter 18.  Matthew said that Jesus was originally silent (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἐσιώπα).  Then the high priest Caiaphas said to Jesus (καὶ ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς εἶπεν αὐτῷ) that he was going to put him under oath according to the living God (Ἐξορκίζω σε κατὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος).  Caiaphas told Jesus to tell everyone there (ἵνα ἡμῖν εἴπῃς) whether he was the Christ, the Messiah, the Son of God (εἰ σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ).  This was a strongly worded theological statement.  Then Jesus replied to Caiaphas, the high priest (λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς), that he had said so (Σὺ εἶπας).  Then Jesus gave him a warning with a solemn pronouncement (πλὴν λέγω ὑμῖν).  He told him that from now on (ἀπ’ ἄρτι), he would see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Power, Yahweh, or God, the Father (ὄψεσθε τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καθήμενον ἐκ δεξιῶν τῆς δυνάμεως), coming on the clouds of heaven (καὶ ἐρχόμενον ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ).  Jesus gave a strong theological response that the end times were near when the Son of Man would appear on a cloud.

Fourth prediction about the death of the Son of Man (Mt 26:2-26:2)

“You know

That after two days

The Passover is coming.

The Son of Man

Will be handed over

To be crucified.”

 

Οἴδατε ὅτι μετὰ δύο ἡμέρας τὸ πάσχα γίνεται, καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοται εἰς τὸ σταυρωθῆναι.

 

This is something similar to this in Mark, chapter 14:1, and in Luke, chapter 22:1, where there was talk of the Passover in 2 days, but no mention of the future death of Jesus.  Jesus said to his disciples that they should know (Οἴδατε) that in 2 days (μετὰ δύο ἡμέρας), the Passover would take place (τὸ πάσχα γίνεται), just like in Mark and Luke.   However, Matthew has Jesus issue his 4th prediction about his death.  He said that Son of Man (καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) would be betrayed or handed over to be crucified (παραδίδοται εἰς τὸ σταυρωθῆναι).  This was similar to the same predictions in the preceding chapters, 16:21-23, 17:22-23, and 20:17:19.  The Passover was a major Jewish celebration in Jerusalem, celebrating the Israelite Exodus from Egypt.

The bridegroom comes (Mt 25:6-25:6)

“But at midnight,

There was a shout.

‘Look!

Here is the bridegroom!

Come out to meet him!’”

 

μέσης δὲ νυκτὸς κραυγὴ γέγονεν Ἰδοὺ ὁ νυμφίος, ἐξέρχεσθε εἰς ἀπάντησιν.

 

This parable story is unique to Matthew.  Jesus continued with his parable about the 10 bridesmaids.  He said that at midnight, the middle of the night (μέσης δὲ νυκτὸς), there was a shout (κραυγὴ γέγονεν).  The bridegroom was coming (Ἰδοὺ ὁ νυμφίος), so that they were to go out to meet or receive him (ἐξέρχεσθε εἰς ἀπάντησιν).  The bridegroom, probably the Son of Man or Jesus, was coming.  They were all to go out to receive him.

Be ready (Mt 24:42-24:44)

“Keep awake therefore!

You do not know

On what day

Your Lord is coming.

But understand this!

If the owner

Of the house

Had known

In what part

Of the night

The thief was coming,

He would have stayed awake.

He would not have

Let his house

Be broken into.

Therefore,

You also must be ready!

The Son of Man

Is coming

At an unexpected hour.”

 

γρηγορεῖτε οὖν, ὅτι οὐκ οἴδατε ποίᾳ ἡμέρᾳ ὁ κύριος ὑμῶν ἔρχεται.

ἐκεῖνο δὲ γινώσκετε ὅτι εἰ ᾔδει ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης ποίᾳ φυλακῇ ὁ κλέπτης ἔρχεται, ἐγρηγόρησεν ἂν καὶ οὐκ ἂν εἴασεν διορυχθῆναι τὴν οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ.

διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ὑμεῖς γίνεσθε ἕτοιμοι, ὅτι ᾗ οὐ δοκεῖτε ὥρᾳ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεται.

 

There is one sentence of this saying of Jesus in Matthew that is similar in Mark, chapter 13:35, and also in Luke, chapter 12:39-40, about the thief at night.  Jesus warned his disciples to be vigilant.  They were to stay awake (γρηγορεῖτε οὖν) because they did not know on what day (ὅτι οὐκ οἴδατε ποίᾳ ἡμέρᾳ) the Lord was coming (ὁ κύριος ὑμῶν ἔρχεται).  They had to understand or realize (ἐκεῖνο δὲ γινώσκετε) that if an owner of a house had known at what time of the night a thief was coming (ὅτι εἰ ᾔδει ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης ποίᾳ φυλακῇ ὁ κλέπτης ἔρχεται), he would have been alert and stayed awake (ἐγρηγόρησεν ἂν).  He would not have let his house be broken into (καὶ οὐκ ἂν εἴασεν διορυχθῆναι τὴν οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ).  Therefore, they had to be ready or prepared (διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ὑμεῖς γίνεσθε ἕτοιμοι) for the coming of the Son of Man (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεται) because he would be coming at an unexpected hour (ὅτι ᾗ οὐ δοκεῖτε ὥρᾳ).