The priests in the Temple (Mt 12:5-12:5)

“Have you not read

In the law

That on the Sabbath

The priests in the temple

Break the Sabbath.

Yet they are guiltless?”

 

ἢ οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῷ νόμῳ ὅτι τοῖς σάββασιν οἱ ἱερεῖς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ τὸ σάββατον βεβηλοῦσιν καὶ ἀναίτιοί εἰσιν;

 

This saying is unique to Matthew.  He has Jesus cite an example in Numbers, chapter 28:9-10, where there was a special sacrifice only on the Sabbath.  This sacrifice had two male one-year old lambs without blemish, and two-tenths of an ephah of choice flour for a grain offering, mixed with oil, and its drink offering.  This was the burnt offering every Sabbath.  This was in addition to the regular burnt offerings and the drink offerings.  However, this sacrifice was not mentioned in any other place in the Torah.  Jesus asked them if they had read the law (ἢ οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῷ νόμῳ) where on the Sabbath (ὅτι τοῖς σάββασιν), the priests in the temple (οἱ ἱερεῖς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ) broke or profaned the Sabbath with these sacrifices (τὸ σάββατον βεβηλοῦσιν), yet they were guiltless (καὶ ἀναίτιοί εἰσιν).

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An eye for an eye (Mt 5:38-5:38)

“You have heard

That it was said.

‘An eye for an eye.

A tooth for a tooth.’”

 

Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη Ὀφθαλμὸν ἀντὶ ὀφθαλμοῦ καὶ ὀδόντα ἀντὶ ὀδόντος.

 

Once again, Matthew has Jesus cite Exodus, chapter 21:23.  They all had heard this old saying about revenge talked about (Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη).  An eye for an eye (Ὀφθαλμὸν ἀντὶ ὀφθαλμοῦ) and a tooth for a tooth (καὶ ὀδόντα ἀντὶ ὀδόντος.), plain and simple.  This Exodus citation started out by talking about what to do if you hit a pregnant woman that caused her to have a miscarriage.  Then you would have to pay the fine that the woman’s husband demanded, as approved by a judge.  If any harm followed, you ended up with the famous revenge concept of a life for a life, an eye for an eye, a tooth for tooth, a hand for a hand, a foot for a foot, a burn for a burn, a wound for a wound, a stripe for a stripe.  This revenge concept was clear, even though it was a limited revenge.