“Was any one
At the time of his call
Let him not seek
The marks of circumcision.
Was any one
At the time of his call
Let him not seek circumcision.”
περιτετμημένος τις ἐκλήθη; μὴ ἐπισπάσθω· ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ κέκληταί τις; μὴ περιτεμνέσθω.
Paul then asked, “Was any one at the time of his call already circumcised (περιτετμημένος τις ἐκλήθη)? Let him not seek to remove the marks of circumcision (μὴ ἐπισπάσθω). Was any one at the time of his call uncircumcised (ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ κέκληταί τις)? Let him not seek circumcision (μὴ περιτεμνέσθω).” Only the Pauline letters used this word ἐπισπάσθω, draw over, become as uncircumcised, and the word ἀκροβυστίᾳ, that means the prepuce, foreskin, or uncircumcision. Paul made a big deal about circumcision because of the Jewish tradition and the importance of circumcision as a sign of God’s chosen ones. Due to Corinthian public baths and playing games in the nude, circumcision or non-circumcision would be known to other people. Paul said that if they were circumcised when they got the call to be a follower of Jesus Christ, then they should not try to undo their circumcision, which would be difficult anyway. However, at the same time, he pointed out that those who got the call to follow Jesus Christ who were not circumcised, did not need to be circumcised. Basically, he was saying that the Jewish Christians should remain circumcised, but that the gentile Christians did not need to be circumcised, because circumcision had nothing to do with Christian faith or belief. Do you care about circumcision?
Paul asked what was the value of circumcision? The uncircumcised can also keep the law. Thus, the uncircumcised can become the circumcised of heart and condemn the circumcised ones. True circumcision is a spiritual circumcision. The real Jewish person has an inward circumcision, not merely a literal circumcision. What kind of circumcision do you have?
It is not from Moses,
But from your ancestral fathers.
On the Sabbath.”
διὰ τοῦτο Μωϋσῆς δέδωκεν ὑμῖν τὴν περιτομήν, — οὐχ ὅτι
ἐκ τοῦ Μωϋσέως ἐστὶν ἀλλ’ ἐκ τῶν πατέρων, — καὶ ἐν σαββάτῳ περιτέμνετε
uniquely indicated that Jesus said that Moses (διὰ τοῦτο Μωϋσῆς) gave them (δέδωκεν
ὑμῖν) circumcision (τὴν περιτομήν).
However, he quickly added that it was not from Moses (οὐχ ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ
Μωϋσέως ἐστὶν), but from their ancestral fathers (ἐστὶν ἀλλ’ ἐκ τῶν πατέρων). Thus, they circumcise a man (περιτέμνετε
ἄνθρωπον) on the Sabbath (καὶ ἐν σαββάτῳ).
This would be true if it is the eighth day after the birth of the male
child. They wanted to follow Leviticus,
chapter 12:3, that on the eight day after birth, the flesh of his foreskin
shall be circumcised. Circumcision is
the removal of the foreskin from the human male penis. This circumcision was and is a main feature
of Jewish male life. Although it goes
back to the time of Abraham and his covenant with Yahweh in Genesis,
chapter 17:10, it was also part of the Mosaic Levitical law. Thus, Moses did not institute the practice of
circumcision. However, sometimes today circumcision
is used as a treatment for certain medical conditions or for preventative
reasons. An estimated one-third of all males
worldwide are presently circumcised today. This procedure is most common among Muslims
and Jews and parts of Southeast Asia, and Africa. However, it is rare in Europe, Latin America,
parts of Southern Africa, and most of Asia. In the United States, rates of circumcision have
decreased to 58% in 2010. The oldest
documented evidence of circumcision comes from ancient Egypt, around 3,000 BCE,
although it was even practiced among many indigenous tribes throughout the
world. Various theories have been
proposed as to its origin including as a religious sacrifice, as a rite of
passage marking a boy’s entrance into adulthood, or as a way to identify a captured
slave. However, here it was part of the religious
law in Judaism. However, circumcision is
also found in Islam, as well as among Coptic and Ethiopian Orthodox Christians. According to Luke, chapter 2:21, Jesus
was circumcised on the eighth day at the Temple in following the Jewish law. Thus, circumcision on the eighth day was more
important than the Sabbath rest. Do you
know anybody that has been circumcised?
“When the time came
For their purification,
According to the law
They brought him up
To present him
To the Lord.”
Καὶ ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ αὐτῶν κατὰ τὸν νόμον Μωϋσέως, ἀνήγαγον αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα παραστῆσαι τῷ Κυρίῳ,
Luke said that when the time or the days were completed (Καὶ ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι) for their purification (τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ αὐτῶν), according to the law of Moses (κατὰ τὸν νόμον Μωϋσέως, Joseph and Mary brought Jesus to Jerusalem (ἀνήγαγον αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα) to present him to the Lord (παραστῆσαι τῷ Κυρίῳ). What is this purification and is it different than circumcision. The story of John did not have this purification ritual. Strictly speaking, this was a purification of the mother to take place 40 days after the birth of a child that had made her unclean as described in Leviticus, chapter 12:1-8. The presentation of the child and the father were not part of this purification ritual. There was no law or custom about the presentation of a child, other than the presentation of the first born as in Exodus, chapter 13:2 and 13:16. Women were considered unclean after childbirth because of the blood discharge that took place with birthing. If a male was born, the woman was unclean for 7 days, like menstruation, so that on the 8th day the male child could be circumcised. There were 33 more days of blood purification for the male child. During her unclean period, this new mother could not touch any holy thing, or go into the sanctuary. Thus, the purification ritual took place on the 40th day, a symbolic number based on the 40 years of the Israelites in the desert wilderness.
“Then they began
To his father
To find out
To give him.”
ἐνένευον δὲ τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ τὸ τί ἂν θέλοι καλεῖσθαι αὐτό.
Luke indicated that that the people at the circumcision began making signs or motioning to Zechariah, the father of the child (ἐνένευον δὲ τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ), to find out what name he wanted to give or wished to call his son (τὸ τί ἂν θέλοι καλεῖσθαι αὐτό). The father of the child had the final say as to the name of the child.
“They said to Elizabeth.
‘None of your relatives
Has that name.’”
καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτὴν ὅτι Οὐδείς ἐστιν ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας σου ὃς καλεῖται τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ.
Luke remarked that the people at the circumcision said to Elizabeth (καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτὴν) that none of her relatives (ὅτι Οὐδείς ἐστιν ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας σου) had been called with the name of John (ὃς καλεῖται τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ). First, they wanted to name the child after the father. Then they noted that none of their relatives had that name of John either, although it was a common name.
“They were going
To name him
After his father.”
καὶ ἐκάλουν αὐτὸ ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ Ζαχαρίαν.
Luke said that they were going to name him (καὶ ἐκάλουν αὐτὸ) Zechariah (Ζαχαρίαν), after the name of his father (ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ). The naming of the child was not associated with the circumcision until later. Christians often call the baptizing of their infants Christening when they give a Christian name to the child, after infant baptism became popular in the early Middle Ages. Interesting enough, the Hispanic or Sephardic Jews name their children after their parents, while the Ashkenazic or Eastern European Jews name their children after dead relatives or grandparents. However, today, naming a Jewish boy and circumcision take place at the same time. For girls, it had become usual to name the girl at a Torah reading on the Sabbath.
“In those days, certain renegades came out from Israel. They misled many, saying.
‘Let us go and make a covenant with the gentiles around us.
Since we separated from them,
Many disasters have come upon us.’
This proposal pleased them. Some of the people eagerly went to the king. He authorized them to observe the ordinances of the gentiles. Thus they built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, according to gentile custom. They removed the marks of circumcision. They abandoned the holy covenant. They joined with the gentiles and sold themselves to do evil.”
During this time, around 175 BCE, there was a movement in Jerusalem to assimilate into the Hellenistic Greek culture that was all around them. This movement was led by the so-called Jewish renegades, the lawless ones, or non-followers or compromisers of the Law of Moses. This will be the Jewish group that opposes the Maccabees. These renegades began to follow the Greek, gentile or pagan practices. They built a Greek gymnasium in Jerusalem which was a center for politics, culture, and sports. They tried to cover up their circumcision. They abandoned the Mosaic covenant, as they made a new covenant with the Greek gentiles to increase business with the Syrians.
“Yahweh said to Moses and Aaron, ‘This is the ordinance for the Passover. No foreigners shall eat of it, but any slave who has been purchased may eat of it after he has been circumcised. No bound or hired servant may eat of it. It shall be eaten in one house. You shall not take any part of the animal outside the house. You shall not break any of its bones. The whole congregation of Israel shall celebrate it. If an alien who resides with you wants to celebrate the Passover to Yahweh, all his males shall be circumcised. Then he may draw to celebrate it. He shall be regarded as a native of the land. But no uncircumcised person shall eat of it. There shall be one law for the native and for the alien who resides among you.’ All the Israelites did just as Yahweh commanded Moses and Aaron. That very day Yahweh brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt company by company.”
Coming from the priestly tradition there are more prescriptions about who can participate in the Passover. No foreigners could eat of it. However, a purchased circumcised slave may eat of it. You had to eat it in one house. You cannot take the Passover meal outside the house or break the bones of the animal. If an alien wants to partake, his whole household must be circumcised. It is strange that they were worried about non-Israelites partaking in Passover at this early stage. Obviously this is a later addition.
“On the way, at a place where they spent the night, Yahweh met him and tried to kill Moses. Then Zipporah took a flint and cut off her son’s foreskin, and touched Moses’ feet with it, and said, ‘Truly you are a bridegroom of blood to me!’ So he let him alone. It was then she said, ‘A bridegroom of blood by circumcision.’”
This is a complicated passage, no matter what language you are reading it in. Apparently, on his way to Egypt, one night Yahweh tried to kill Moses. Some have interpreted this like Jacob and his wrestling with God in Genesis, chapter 32. To stop the murder from taking place, the wife of Moses, Zipporah, took a flint and cut off her son’s foreskin and put it on Moses’ feet, a euphemism for genitals. Yahweh then let him alone. Obviously, Moses was not aware of the strict understanding of circumcision, but his wife acted quickly. In fact, there was no mention of the circumcision of Moses himself. Circumcision was known in the Middle East, sometimes as a preparation for marriage. However, for the Israelites it had a specific religious meaning, as it was projected back to the time of Abraham.