Do not be led astray!
Many will come
In my name.
They will say.
‘I am he!’
‘The time is near!’
Do not go after them!’”
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Βλέπετε μὴ πλανηθῆτε· πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐλεύσονται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου λέγοντες Ἐγώ εἰμι, καί Ὁ καιρὸς ἤγγικεν· μὴ πορευθῆτε ὀπίσω αὐτῶν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν) that they should be aware (Βλέπετε) and not be led astray (ὴ πλανηθῆτε) because many people would come in his name (πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐλεύσονται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου). They would say (λέγοντες) that they were Jesus (Ἐγώ εἰμι) and that the end time was near (καί Ὁ καιρὸς ἤγγικεν). However, they were not to go after them (μὴ πορευθῆτε ὀπίσω αὐτῶν). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:4-5, and in Mark, chapter 13:5-6, almost word for word. Mark said that Jesus began to tell them about people who might lead them astray (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἤρξατο λέγειν αὐτοῖς). He told them that they should be aware, so that they would not be led astray or be misled (Βλέπετε μή τις ὑμᾶς πλανήσῃ). They had to be cautious, so as not to be deceived. Jesus said that many people would come in his name (πολλοὶ ἐλεύσονται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου) saying that they were the One (λέγοντες ὅτι Ἐγώ εἰμι). They would try to deceive them by leading them astray (καὶ πολλοὺς πλανήσουσιν). In Matthew, Jesus warned them against people who might lead them astray (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Βλέπετε μή τις ὑμᾶς πλανήσῃ). Many people would come in his name (πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐλεύσονται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου) saying that they were the Messiah Christ (λέγοντες Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ Χριστός). Matthew explicitly mentioned the Christ, but this was not in the other accounts. They would say this in order to deceive them and lead them astray (καὶ πολλοὺς πλανήσουσιν). Apparently, there were many deceptive Jewish messianic leaders who were saying that they were the Christ Messiah. John the Baptist was an example of a messianic leader in the 1st century CE. Other political Jewish leaders had messianic ambitions also, especially those who led the revolt against the Romans in the 2nd half of the 1st century. Jesus was warning against all of them. Have people tried to deceive you?
David calls him
How can he be
Δαυεὶδ οὖν αὐτὸν Κύριον καλεῖ, καὶ πῶς αὐτοῦ υἱός ἐστιν;
Luke left this question unanswered. Jesus asked them, since David called the Messiah Christ Lord (Δαυεὶδ οὖν αὐτὸν Κύριον καλεῖ), how can he be his son (καὶ πῶς αὐτοῦ υἱός ἐστιν)? There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:45-46, and Mark, chapter 12:37. However, there it was a complete victory for Jesus. What did David mean when he called the future Messiah Christ, a son of David? The traditional belief was that the Messiah Christ would be the son or descendant of David. Jesus then posed this big question. Mark indicated that Jesus asked how could David call the Messiah Lord (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ λέγει αὐτὸν Κύριον) and yet be his son, the son of David (καὶ πόθεν αὐτοῦ ἐστιν υἱός)? This was a trick question. Why would David call his future son or descendant his own Lord or master, or consider him greater? The implication was that Jesus, the Son of Man, and descendant of David, was greater than David. Peter, in fact, repeated this citation of Psalm 110 in his preaching in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 2:34-35, also. Only Mark had the comment that a large crowd was listening to Jesus with delight or gladly (Καὶ ὁ πολὺς ὄχλος ἤκουεν αὐτοῦ ἡδέως). Matthew indicated that neither the Pharisees nor anyone else were able to give him any kind of verbal response (καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο ἀποκριθῆναι αὐτῷ λόγον). Matthew remarked that from that day on (ἀπ’ ἐκείνης τῆς ἡμέρας), no one dared to ask him any more questions (οὐδὲ ἐτόλμησέν τις…ἐπερωτῆσαι αὐτὸν οὐκέτι), as this was a complete verbal victory for Jesus against the Pharisees. Have you ever left anyone speechless?
In the Book of Psalms.
‘The Lord said
To my Lord.
Sit at my right hand!’”
αὐτὸς γὰρ Δαυεὶδ λέγει ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου
Luke had Jesus continue by saying that David himself said that (αὐτὸς γὰρ Δαυεὶδ λέγει) in the Book of Psalms (ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν) that the Lord said to my Lord (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου) to sit at my right hand (Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Here is an explicit reference to the Book of the Psalms with the assumption that King David (1000 BCE) had written this psalm. Thus, citing Psalm 110 was like citing David himself. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:43-44, and Mark, chapter 12:36. Mark used Psalm 110:1 as the basis of this question about David and the Messiah Christ. Mark indicated that Jesus said that David himself (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ εἶπεν), inspired by the Holy Spirit (ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῳ), spoke about the “Lord (Κύριος).” In Psalm 110:1, David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Matthew indicated that Jesus asked them what did David mean when, inspired by the Spirit, he called the future Messiah, a son of David, “Lord” (Πῶς οὖν Δαυεὶδ ἐν Πνεύματι καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον λέγω). Jesus then cited Psalm 110:1, where David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Thus, there was an attempt to give Davidic authority to this biblical saying. Do you like the psalms?
“Those who try
Their life secure,
Will lose it.
But those who lose
Will keep it.”
ὃς ἐὰν ζητήσῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ περιποιήσασθαι, ἀπολέσει αὐτήν, καὶ ὃς ἂν ἀπολέσει, ζωογονήσει αὐτήν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that those who try to make their life secure or save it (ὃς ἐὰν ζητήσῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ περιποιήσασθαι), would lose it (ἀπολέσει αὐτήν). But those who lose their life (καὶ ὃς ἂν ἀπολέσει), would keep or preserve it (ζωογονήσει αὐτήν). In chapter 9:24, Luke indicated that Jesus said that anyone who wanted to save his life (ὃς γὰρ ἐὰν θέλῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ σῶσαι), would lose it or have it sent away (ἀπολέσει αὐτήν). Those who lost their life (ὃς δ’ ἂν ἀπολέσῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ) for the sake of Jesus (ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ), would save it (οὗτος σώσει αὐτήν). Jesus told his disciples how to save their lives. Something similar can be found in the other synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 16:25, and Mark, chapter 8:35. Mark indicated that Jesus said that whoever wished, desired, or wanted to save his life, he would lose it. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that whoever wished, desired, or wanted to save their life, they would lose it. However, anyone who lost their life for the sake of Jesus, they would find their life. This is also similar to Matthew, chapter 10:39 and John, chapter 12:25. In order to gain your eternal life, you have to lose your life for the sake of Jesus. Anyone who thinks that he has found his life or soul, will lose it. On the other hand, anyone who loses their life or soul for the sake of Jesus will find their life or soul. Thus, you have to lose your life or soul in Jesus, in order to truly live, a common theme about losing your life for Christ. Have you lost your life in Jesus?
“They will say
Do not go!
Do not follow them!”
καὶ ἐροῦσιν ὑμῖν Ἰδοὺ ἐκεῖ, Ἰδοὺ ὧδε· μὴ ἀπέλθητε μηδὲ διώξητε.
Luke indicated that Jesus remarked that people would tell them (καὶ ἐροῦσιν ὑμῖν) to look here (Ἰδοὺ ἐκεῖ) and there (Ἰδοὺ ὧδε). They were not to go and follow them (μὴ ἀπέλθητε μηδὲ διώξητε). This was similar to earlier in this chapter, 17:21. This is also somewhat similar to Mark, chapter 13:21, and Matthew, chapter 24:23, who were almost word for word to each other. Mark said that Jesus warned his disciples that if anyone said to them that the Messiah Christ was there (καὶ τότε ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Ἴδε ὧδε ὁ Χριστός), or if they said look here (Ἴδε ἐκεῖ), they were not to believe it (μὴ πιστεύετε). They were not to be misled by rumors about the Christ Messiah. Matthew said that Jesus warned his disciples that if anyone said to them to look because the Messiah Christ was there (τότε ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Ἰδοὺ ὧδε ὁ Χριστός, ἤ Ὧδε), they were not to believe it (μὴ πιστεύσητε). Many people might lead them astray, by saying that they were the Messiah Christ in order to deceive them. Apparently, there were many deceptive Jewish messianic leaders who were saying that they were the Christ Messiah. John the Baptist was an example of a messianic leader in the 1st century CE. Other political Jewish leaders had messianic ambitions also, especially those who led the revolt against the Romans in the 2nd half of the 1st century. Jesus was warning against all of them. Have you ever been misled by a religious leader?
“They will not say.
Here it is!
‘There it is!
The kingdom of God
Is among you.’”
οὐδὲ ἐροῦσιν Ἰδοὺ ὧδε ἤ Ἐκεῖ· ἰδοὺ γὰρ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐντὸς ὑμῶν ἐστιν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that people would not say (οὐδὲ ἐροῦσιν), “Look! Here it is (Ἰδοὺ ὧδε)!” Or “Look! There it is (ἤ Ἐκεῖ· ἰδοὺ)!” Jesus emphasized that in fact, the kingdom of God (γὰρ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ) was among them (ἐντὸς ὑμῶν ἐστιν). This is somewhat similar to Mark, chapter 13:21, and Matthew, chapter 24:23. However, they were concerned about the coming of the Messiah rather than the coming of the kingdom of God. Matthew said that Jesus warned his disciples that if anyone said to them to look because the Messiah Christ was there (τότε ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Ἰδοὺ ὧδε ὁ Χριστός, ἤ Ὧδε), they were not to believe it (μὴ πιστεύσητε). Mark said that Jesus warned his disciples that if anyone said to them to look because the Messiah Christ was there (καὶ τότε ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Ἴδε ὧδε ὁ Χριστός), or if they said look, there he is (Ἴδε ἐκεῖ), they were not to believe it (μὴ πιστεύετε). They were not to be misled by rumors about the Christ Messiah. Here in Luke, it was about the kingdom of God and the not the Messiah. More importantly, Jesus insisted here in Luke that the kingdom of God was with them already. Is the kingdom of God among you?
“Jesus said to them.
‘But who do you say
That I am?’
εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι; Πέτρος δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Τὸν Χριστὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ
Luke indicated that Jesus asked his disciples (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς) who did they say that he was (Ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι)? Peter answered (Πέτρος δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς) that he was the Messiah, the Christ of God (εἶπεν Τὸν Χριστὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ). This same question and response of Peter can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:15-17, Mark, chapter 6:29 and John, 6:69, but all slightly different. Mark said that Jesus was questioning his disciples who was it that they thought or said that he was. Jesus thus put them to the test. This was not about what others said or thought, but about their understanding of Jesus. Who did they think Jesus was? Mark said that Peter replied to the generic question of Jesus immediately. He said that Jesus was the Christ or the Messiah that they were expecting in Israel. Matthew indicated that Jesus asked his disciples who they thought or said that he was. Was he the Son of Man or someone else? Simon Peter replied to the question of Jesus immediately. He said that Jesus was the Christ or the Messiah that they were expecting in Israel. Jesus was the son of the living God, not just merely the son of God. Peter, as the leader of this new group of Jesus followers, asserted this important belief about Jesus. For the first time, Jesus was called the Christ, the Messiah. Here Peter, in the name of the nascent Christian community, proclaimed that Jesus was the Messiah, the Christ. Are the Greek “Christ” and the Hebrew “Messiah” the same? Matthew was the only one who had Peter say that Jesus was the son of the living God. Matthew was also the only one that mentioned the special relationship that Peter had with his Father in heaven. However, Peter gave a strong positive response in all four versions. Matthew also had Jesus respond to Peter, but that was not in Mark or Luke. Jesus said that Simon was blessed, because flesh and blood or humans had not revealed this saying of his, but Jesus’ heavenly Father had done so. Thus, Peter had a special relationship with the Father in heaven. Peter, as the leader of this new group of Jesus followers, asserted this important belief about Jesus. Matthew, more than any of the other gospel writers, emphasized the role of Peter as the leader of the early Christian community, the disciples, and the apostles of Jesus. Who is your human Christian leader?
“The disciples answered.
‘John the Baptist!’
But others say.
While others say.
‘One of the ancient prophets
οἱ δὲ ἀποκριθέντες εἶπαν Ἰωάνην τὸν Βαπτιστήν, ἄλλοι δὲ Ἡλείαν, ἄλλοι δὲ ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων ἀνέστη.
Luke said that his disciples answered him by saying (οἱ δὲ ἀποκριθέντες εἶπαν) that people thought that he was John the Baptist (Ἰωάνην τὸν Βαπτιστήν), Elijah (ἄλλοι δὲ Ἡλείαν), or one of the ancient prophets (ἄλλοι δὲ ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων) that has risen (ἀνέστη). A similar response can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:14, and Mark, chapter 9:19, but there are differences. Matthew is the only one who explicitly mentioned Jeremiah, while Mark and Luke had the more generic term of one of the prophets, rather than any individual prophet. Mark said that the disciples responded to him that some people said he was John the Baptist, while others said Elijah. This Elijah was a 9th century BCE northern Israel prophet whose work can be found in the Old Testament Books of 1 Kings, 2 Kings, and 1 Chronicles. Finally, other people said that he was one of the many prophets. No one called him the Messiah or Christ. Matthew indicated that the disciples responded that some people said that John the Baptist was the Son of Man. Others said that Elijah was the Son of Man. Still others said that the Son of Man was Jeremiah, a Judean prophet active from 626 BCE to 587 BCE, around the time of the destruction of the Temple, . The Book of Jeremiah was one of the 3 major prophetic books of Hebrew Scripture. Finally, other people said that one of the many other ancient prophets was the Son of Man. Matthew and Mark did not mention that Jesus was the resurrected form of these people like Luke did. Would you consider Jesus the Son of Man?
Two of his disciples.
He sent them
To the Lord.
‘Are you the one
Who is to come,
Or are we
καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος δύο τινὰς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ὁ Ἰωάνης
ἔπεμψεν πρὸς τὸν Κύριον λέγων Σὺ εἶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, ἢ ἄλλον προσδοκῶμεν;
Luke said that John the Baptist summoned two of his disciples (καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος δύο τινὰς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ὁ Ἰωάνης). He sent them to the Lord (ἔπεμψεν πρὸς τὸν Κύριον) to ask him if he was the one who was to come (λέγων Σὺ εἶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος)? Or should they wait for another (ἢ ἄλλον προσδοκῶμεν)? Matthew, chapter 11:3 has something similar. John the Baptist sent a few of his disciples, rather than two as indicated by Luke. Notice that this is the first time that Matthew called Jesus the Christ (τοῦ Χριστοῦ), while Luke called him the Lord (Κύριον). Neither called him Jesus. The question in both Luke and Matthew is exactly the same, indicating a possible Q source. These disciples of John came to Jesus. They had one big important question to ask him. Was Jesus the expected Messiah or should they wait for someone else? The disciples of John were true messianic Jews, waiting for the Messiah. Did they not realize that Jesus had been baptized by John the Baptist? In fact, John had already met Jesus, had a conversation with him, and witnessed his baptism. What more did he need? In one sense this is strange since Luke already established that John and Jesus were cousins of some sort, so that they would have known each other, to say nothing about John’s baptism of Jesus. Is Jesus the one that you have been waiting for?
“The disciples of John
All these things
Καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν Ἰωάνει οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ περὶ πάντων τούτων.
Luke said that the disciples of John the Baptist (οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ) reported to John (Καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν Ἰωάνει) all these things (περὶ πάντων τούτων). Matthew, chapter 11:2, had something similar. John the Baptist heard about the works or deeds of Jesus the Christ, the anointed one, the Messiah, while he was in a prison. Clearly John still had a number of disciples, despite his imprisonment. Here Luke does not explicitly mention that John was in prison, just that a few of his disciples reported back to John the Baptist about Jesus and his activities. How do you learn about Jesus?