“When day came,
He called his disciples.
Twelve of them,
Whom he named apostles.”
καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο ἡμέρα, προσεφώνησεν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐκλεξάμενος ἀπ’ αὐτῶν δώδεκα, οὓς καὶ ἀποστόλους ὠνόμασεν,
Luke said that when daylight or the day came (καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο ἡμέρα), Jesus called his disciples (προσεφώνησεν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ). However, he chose twelve of them (καὶ ἐκλεξάμενος ἀπ’ αὐτῶν δώδεκα), whom he named apostles (οὓς καὶ ἀποστόλους ὠνόμασεν). The number 12 corresponded to the number of sons of Jacob or the 12 tribes of Israel. These 12 had what was later referred to as apostolic authority. Jesus thus established or picked out these 12 disciples to carry on his work. The distinction was that disciples were learners or followers. The apostles, on the other hand, were to be sent out on a mission to do something. There is something similar in Mark, chapter 3:13-14, where Jesus called these special disciples, apostles, also. Jesus called these 12 that he wanted to be with him. They, of course, came to him. Matthew, chapter 10:1, said that Jesus gave these 12 apostles authority to cast out unclean spirits just as he had done. Jesus summoned or called his 12 apostles to give them spiritual authority over unclean or impure spirits. Thus, they could cast out or banish these evil spirits or demons. They were also able to cure, treat, or heal all diseases and illnesses, sicknesses, or weakness. In other words, Jesus was giving his own power or authority to cast out evil spirits and heal people to these 12 apostles. This was a big deal.
“Then he went down
He was obedient
All these things
In her heart.”
καὶ κατέβη μετ’ αὐτῶν καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς Ναζαρὲθ, καὶ ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος αὐτοῖς. καὶ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ διετήρει πάντα τὰ ῥήματα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῆς.
Luke said that Jesus went down with his parents to Nazareth (καὶ κατέβη μετ’ αὐτῶν καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς Ναζαρὲθ). There he was obedient to them or submitted to them (καὶ ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος αὐτοῖς). He did not go out on his own. His mother treasured all these things (καὶ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ διετήρει πάντα τὰ ῥήματα) in her heart (ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῆς). This may be a hint that some of this information came from Mary, the mother of Jesus. Jesus could have begun his public ministry as a boy wonder in Jerusalem, but he chose not to do so. Instead he went back to Nazareth to be an obedient submissive child for at least 10-15 years. That seems like a strange decision. Meanwhile, his mother pondered or kept all these events in her heart as memoires.
“If the Lord
Had not cut short
Would be saved.
But for the sake
Of the elect,
Whom he chose,
He has cut short
καὶ εἰ μὴ ἐκολόβωσεν Κύριος τὰς ἡμέρας, οὐκ ἂν ἐσώθη πᾶσα σάρξ· ἀλλὰ διὰ τοὺς ἐκλεκτοὺς οὓς ἐξελέξατο ἐκολόβωσεν τὰς ἡμέρας.
There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:22, but not in Luke. Mark indicated that Jesus said that if the Lord had not cut short those days (καὶ εἰ μὴ ἐκολόβωσεν Κύριος τὰς ἡμέρας), no one or any flesh would be saved (οὐκ ἂν ἐσώθη πᾶσα σάρξ). However, for the sake of the elect or the chosen ones (ἀλλὰ διὰ τοὺς ἐκλεκτοὺς οὓς ἐξελέξατο), the Lord cut short those days (ἐκολόβωσεν τὰς ἡμέρας). Thus, there will be less suffering at the end times because God does not want his chosen elected ones to suffer too much.
“When Alcimus had said this, the rest of the king’s friends, who were hostile to Judas Maccabeus, quickly inflamed King Demetrius still more. He immediately chose Nicanor, who had been in command of the elephants. He appointed him governor of Judea. He sent him off with orders to kill Judas Maccabeus and scatter his troops. He was to install Alcimus as high priest of the great temple. The gentiles throughout Judea, who had fled before Judas Maccabeus, flocked to join Nicanor. They thought that the misfortunes and calamities of the Jews would mean prosperity for themselves.”
Once again, this is similar but not quite the same as 1 Maccabees, chapter 7. There is no mention of Bacchides here. Instead the leader of the troops and the governor of Judea was Nicanor. Apparently, Nicanor had been in charge of the elephants that seem to have been a big deal in the Syrian army. He may also have been with King Demetrius I when he was in jail in Rome. Now this meant that there was a separate governor for Judea whose sole purpose was to kill Judas Maccabees and disperse his troops. Alcimus was officially made the high priest. The gentiles in the area were happy so that they eagerly joined with Nicanor. The assumption of the gentiles was a zero sum game that if the Jews were in trouble, it would be better for them.
“When Jonathan heard the words of Apollonius, his spirit was aroused. He chose ten thousand men and set out from Jerusalem. His brother Simon met him to help him. He encamped before Joppa, but the men of the city closed its gates. Apollonius had a garrison in Joppa. So they fought against it. Then the people of the city became afraid. They opened their gates so that Jonathan gained possession of Joppa.”
When Jonathan heard the words of the message from Apollonius who represented King Demetrius II, he was annoyed. This time Jonathan had a large force of 10,000 men when he also met with his brother Simon. He decided to go to Joppa, one of the ancient Mediterranean seaports, about 35 miles northwest of Jerusalem. Apollonius had a garrison there, but Jonathan fought against them. The people in the city became afraid so that they opened the gates and let Jonathan take over.