Bad judge (Lk 18:2-18:2)

“Jesus said.

‘In a certain city,

There was a judge

Who neither feared God

Nor had respect

For people.”

 

λέγων Κριτής τις ἦν ἔν τινι πόλει τὸν Θεὸν μὴ φοβούμενος καὶ ἄνθρωπον μὴ ἐντρεπόμενος

 

Luke uniquely had Jesus continue this parable with the introduction of a bad judge who didn’t care about God or other people.  Luke indicated that Jesus said (λέγων) that in a certain city (ἦν ἔν τινι πόλει), there was a particular judge (Κριτής τις), who neither feared God (τὸν Θεὸν μὴ φοβούμενος) nor had respect or regard for other humans (καὶ ἄνθρωπον μὴ ἐντρεπόμενος).  Have you ever met a bad judge?

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Send Lazarus to warn my brothers (Lk 16:27-16:28)

“The rich man said.

‘Then Father!

I beg you!

Send Lazarus

To my father’s house!

I have five brothers.

Let him warn them!

Thus,

They might not

Also come

Into this place

Of torment.’”

 

εἶπεν δέ Ἐρωτῶ σε οὖν, πάτερ, ἵνα πέμψῃς αὐτὸν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρός μου·

ἔχω γὰρ πέντε ἀδελφούς· ὅπως διαμαρτύρηται αὐτοῖς, ἵνα μὴ καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔλθωσιν εἰς τὸν τόπον τοῦτον τῆς βασάνου.

 

This parable story about the poor man Lazarus and an unnamed rich man is only found in Luke, not in the other gospels.  Luke indicated that Jesus said the rich man responded to Abraham (εἶπεν δέ), calling him father (πάτερ).  He begged Abraham (Ἐρωτῶ σε οὖν) to send Lazarus (ἵνα πέμψῃς αὐτὸν) to his father’s house (εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρός μου).  This rich man said that he had five brothers (ἔχω γὰρ πέντε ἀδελφούς).  He wanted Lazarus to warn them (ὅπως διαμαρτύρηται αὐτοῖς).  Thus, they might not also come into this toremented place (ἵνα μὴ καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔλθωσιν εἰς τὸν τόπον τοῦτον τῆς βασάνου).  The rich man wanted Abraham to send Lazarus back to his family home to warn his 5 brothers, since he could not himself warn them.  This was an act of kindness on his part to care about his 5 brothers.  Would Lazarus be able to do this?  Would you want to warn your family members if you were in hell?

Feed the pigs (Lk 15:15-15:15)

“Thus,

He went

And hired himself out

To one of the citizens

Of that country.

He sent him

To his fields

To feed the pigs.”

 

καὶ πορευθεὶς ἐκολλήθη ἑνὶ τῶν πολιτῶν τῆς χώρας ἐκείνης, καὶ ἔπεμψεν αὐτὸν εἰς τοὺς ἀγροὺς αὐτοῦ βόσκειν χοίρους·

 

This long parable story about the prodigal son can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories.  Luke indicated that Jesus said that this young prodigal son went and hired himself out (καὶ πορευθεὶς ἐκολλήθη) to one of the citizens of that country (ἑνὶ τῶν πολιτῶν τῆς χώρας ἐκείνης), where he was living.  This land owner sent him to his fields (καὶ ἔπεμψεν αὐτὸν εἰς τοὺς ἀγροὺς αὐτοῦ) to feed the pigs (βόσκειν χοίρους).  Obvious, this was a non-Jewish country where pigs were raised for food, not a Jewish country where there would be no pork eaten.  What could be more humiliating for a Jewish person than taking care of unclean swine or pigs?  Have you ever had a job that you felt was degrading to you?

Who is the wise manager? (Lk 12:42-12:42)

“The Lord said.

‘Who then is the faithful

And prudent

Household manager?

His master

Will put him

In charge

Of his slaves.

He will give them

Their correct allowance

Of food

At the proper time.’”

 

καὶ εἶπεν ὁ Κύριος Τίς ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ πιστὸς οἰκονόμος ὁ φρόνιμος, ὃν καταστήσει ὁ κύριος ἐπὶ τῆς θεραπείας αὐτοῦ τοῦ διδόναι ἐν καιρῷ τὸ σιτομέτριον;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus, the Lord asked them (καὶ εἶπεν ὁ Κύριος) who was the faithful and prudent or wise household manager (Τίς ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ πιστὸς οἰκονόμος ὁ φρόνιμος)?  His lord or master would put him (ὃν καταστήσει ὁ κύριος) in charge to care (ὃν καταστήσει ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ) for his other slaves.  He would then give to the other slaves (αὐτοῦ τοῦ διδόναι) their correct allowance or measure of food (τὸ σιτομέτριον) at the proper time (ἐν καιρῷ).  This is the only use of the word σιτομέτριον, meaning, a measured portion of food, in the biblical literature.  There is a similar parable about this good slave in Matthew, chapter 24:45, almost word for word, indicating a possible Q source.  Matthew indicated that Jesus asked who was the faithful and wise slave (Τίς ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ πιστὸς δοῦλος καὶ φρόνιμος)?  This lord or master had put this slave in charge over his other household slaves (ὃν κατέστησεν ὁ κύριος ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκετείας αὐτοῦ).  He was to give the other slaves their allowance of food at the proper time (τοῦ δοῦναι αὐτοῖς τὴν τροφὴν ἐν καιρῷ).  The lord or master had put one wise and faithful servant in charge of his other slaves.  Are you a wise and faithful servant of God?

Seek the kingdom! (Lk 12:31-12:31)

“Instead!

Strive

For his kingdom!

All these things

Will be given

To you

As well.”

 

πλὴν ζητεῖτε τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ταῦτα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν.

 

Luke had Jesus give a simple solution.  Instead of worrying, they were to strive or seek (πλὴν ζητεῖτε) his kingdom (τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ).  Then all these things would be given to them as well (καὶ ταῦτα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν).  Once again, Matthew, chapter 6:33, had a similar Jesus saying, indicating a common Q source, as the same theme continued.  Thus, they should seek or strive first (ζητεῖτε δὲ πρῶτον) for the kingdom (τὴν βασιλείαν) and his righteousness (καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην αὐτοῦ).  Then all these other things would be taken care of for them (καὶ ταῦτα πάντα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν).  Do you seek the kingdom of God?

Everybody needs food and clothing (Lk 12:30-12:30)

“The nations

Of the world

Seek after

All these things.

Your Father knows

That you need them.”

 

ταῦτα γὰρ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τοῦ κόσμου ἐπιζητοῦσιν· ὑμῶν δὲ ὁ Πατὴρ οἶδεν ὅτι χρῄζετε τούτων·

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the nations of the world (τὰ ἔθνη τοῦ κόσμου) seek after (ἐπιζητοῦσιν) all these things (ταῦτα γὰρ πάντα).  However, your Father (ὑμῶν δὲ ὁ Πατὴρ) knows (οἶδεν) that you need them (ὅτι χρῄζετε τούτων).  Once again, Matthew, chapter 6:32, had a similar Jesus saying, indicating a common Q source, as the same theme continued.  Matthew attacked the gentile, non-Jewish people, what Luke called “the nations of the world”.  Matthew had Jesus say that those were the kinds of questions that gentiles sought or asked about (πάντα γὰρ ταῦτα τὰ ἔθνη ἐπιζητοῦσιν).  Their heavenly Father knew about everything that they needed (οἶδεν γὰρ ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος ὅτι χρῄζετε τούτων ἁπάντων).   They should not be worried, since their heavenly Father would take care of them, unlike all the other gentile, non-Jewish countries who needed to worry.  Do you worry a lot?

Men of little faith (Lk 12:28-12:28)

“But if God

Clothes

The grass

Of the field,

That is alive today

Yet tomorrow

Is thrown

Into the oven,

How much more

Will he clothe you.

You!

Of little faith!”

 

εἰ δὲ ἐν ἀγρῷ τὸν χόρτον ὄντα σήμερον καὶ αὔριον εἰς κλίβανον βαλλόμενον ὁ Θεὸς οὕτως ἀμφιέζει, πόσῳ μᾶλλον ὑμᾶς, ὀλιγόπιστοι.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that if God clothed (ὁ Θεὸς οὕτως ἀμφιέζει) the grass of the field (εἰ δὲ ἐν ἀγρῷ τὸν χόρτον), that is alive today (ὄντα σήμερον) yet tomorrow (καὶ αὔριον) is thrown into the oven or furnace (εἰς κλίβανον βαλλόμενον), how much more will he clothe them (πόσῳ μᾶλλον ὑμᾶς) of little faith (ὀλιγόπιστοι).  Once again, Matthew, chapter 6:30, had a similar Jesus saying, almost word for word, indicating a common Q source.  Matthew indicated that Jesus said that the Father, and not God as here, clothed the field grass that is here today (εἰ δὲ τὸν χόρτον τοῦ ἀγροῦ σήμερον ὄντα) and gone tomorrow (καὶ αὔριον), by being thrown into the furnace or oven (εἰς κλίβανον βαλλόμενον).  This use of “κλίβανον,” oven or furnace, is unique to Matthew and Luke here.  Would God, not the Father, also take care of their clothing needs (ὁ Θεὸς οὕτως ἀμφιέννυσιν, οὐ πολλῷ μᾶλλον)?  Obviously, he rebuked them as were men of little faith (ὀλιγόπιστοι).  This word about little faith was a favorite term for Matthew, since he used it 5 times more, with this Luke parallel here the only other usage in the New Testament literature.  Are you a person of little faith?