“When the harvest time came,
The vineyard owner
Sent a slave
To the tenants.
They might give him
Of the produce
Of the vineyard.
But the tenants
They sent him away
καὶ καιρῷ ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς δοῦλον, ἵνα ἀπὸ τοῦ καρποῦ τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος δώσουσιν αὐτῷ· οἱ δὲ γεωργοὶ ἐξαπέστειλαν αὐτὸν δείραντες κενόν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that when the harvest time came (καὶ καιρῷ), this land owner sent a slave to these tenants (ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς δοῦλον), so that they might give him (δώσουσιν αὐτῷ) his share of the produce from the vineyard (ἵνα ἀπὸ τοῦ καρποῦ τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). However, the tenants beat him (δείραντες). They sent him away empty-handed (οἱ δὲ γεωργοὶ ἐξαπέστειλαν αὐτὸν…κενόν). This parable about the wicked tenants can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:34-35, and Mark, chapter 12:2-3. Mark said that when the harvest season time came, the right time (τῷ καιρῷ), the landowner sent a slave (καὶ ἀπέστειλεν…δοῦλον), to these tenants or renters (πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς). He was to collect or receive (λάβῃ) from these tenant farmers (ἵνα παρὰ τῶν γεωργῶν) his share of the fruit produced from this vineyard (ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). This all seemed very reasonable. However, these tenant farmers seized this slave (καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν). They beat him (ἔδειραν). Then they sent him away empty-handed (καὶ ἀπέστειλαν κενόν). There was only one slave in both these accounts, instead of the 3 different slaves that Matthew indicated that Jesus talked about at this harvest time. Matthew remarked that Jesus said that when the time came when the grapes were ripe for picking (ὅτε δὲ ἤγγισεν ὁ καιρὸς τῶν καρπῶν), the landowner sent his slaves (ἀπέστειλεν τοὺς δούλους αὐτοῦ), not one slave, to these tenants or renters (τοὺς γεωργοὺς) to collect his fruit produce (λαβεῖν τοὺς καρποὺς αὐτοῦ). However, these tenant farmers seized his slaves (καὶ λαβόντες οἱ γεωργοὶ τοὺς δούλους αὐτοῦ). They beat one slave (ὃν μὲν ἔδειραν). Then they killed another slave (ὃν δὲ ἀπέκτειναν) and stoned still another slave (ὃν δὲ ἐλιθοβόλησαν). These tenant farmers were not very nice. Only Matthew had the 3 different slaves rather than the one slave as in Luke and Mark. They were also more destructive in Matthew. Have you been a good tenant?
That they did not know
Where it came from.”
καὶ ἀπεκρίθησαν μὴ εἰδέναι πόθεν.
Luke indicated that the Jewish Jerusalem religious leaders answered (καὶ ἀπεκρίθησαν) that they did not know where (μὴ εἰδέναι πόθεν) the baptism of John the Baptist came from. This same response to Jesus can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:27, and Mark, chapter 11:33, almost word for word to each other. Mark said that the chief priests, the Scribes, and the elders responded to Jesus (καὶ ἀποκριθέντες τῷ Ἰησοῦ). They said that they did not know (λέγουσιν Οὐκ οἴδαμεν) the value, origins, or power of the baptism of John the Baptist. Matthew said that the chief priests and elders responded to Jesus (καὶ ἀποκριθέντες τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἶπαν) that they did not know (Οὐκ οἴδαμεν) the origins or power of the baptism of John the Baptist. This non-response was better than an aggravating response. Have you ever pleaded ignorance when you were too embarrassed to answer a question?
“As Jesus came near
He saw the city.
He wept over it.”
Καὶ ὡς ἤγγισεν, ἰδὼν τὴν πόλιν ἔκλαυσεν ἐπ’ αὐτήν,
Luke uniquely said that as Jesus came near (Καὶ ὡς ἤγγισεν) to Jerusalem, he saw the city (ἰδὼν τὴν πόλιν) and wept over it (ἔκλαυσεν ἐπ’ αὐτήν). However, this was the second time that he lamented about the situation in Jerusalem as he had earlier in chapter 13:33-34 about Jerusalem killing its prophets. Jesus sadly entered the city after the rousing entrance in the preceding verses. He was acutely aware of the sufferings and problems to come for himself, the city, and its people. Have you ever wept over a city?
“The crowds said.
Is the coming king
In the name of the Lord!
Peace in heaven!
Glory in the highest heaven!’”
λέγοντες Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος, ὁ Βασιλεὺς ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου· ἐν οὐρανῷ εἰρήνη καὶ δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις.
Luke indicated that the crowds said (λέγοντες) that blessed was the coming king (ὁ ἐρχόμενος, ὁ Βασιλεὺς) in the name of the Lord (ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου·)! Peace in heaven (ν οὐρανῷ εἰρήνη)! Glory in the highest heaven (ν οὐρανῷ εἰρήνη)! This was high praise for Jesus. He was the king coming in the name of the Lord so that there would be peace in heaven and glory in the highest heaven. Matthew, chapter 21:9, and Mark, chapter 11:9-10, are similar, while John, chapter 12:13, is closer to Luke, but with slight differences. Mark said that they were all shouting out “Hosanna” (Ὡσαννὰ)!” Jesus was the blessed one who came in the name of the Lord (Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου). Mark said that they were shouting blessed is the coming kingdom (Εὐλογημένη ἡ ἐρχομένη βασιλεία) of our ancestor or father David (οῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Δαυείδ). He did not actually call Jesus the son of David, as Matthew did. These hosannas should reach to the highest heaven (Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις). Matthew indicated that they were all shouting out (ἔκραζον λέγοντες) Hosanna to the Son of David (Ὡσαννὰ τῷ υἱῷ Δαυείδ)! He was the blessed one who came in the name of the Lord (Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου). These hosannas should reach to the highest heaven (Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις). Hosanna was a Hebrew term of praise asking God to save them. This saying came from the Hallel chants that was used in the Passover celebration, based on Psalm 118:26. Later it became part of the Roman Catholic “Sanctus” chant in the Eucharistic celebration. This event has become the great Palm Sunday celebration, the triumphant entrance of Jesus into Jerusalem. Actually, only John, chapter 12:13, called these palm branches. John repeated what Luke had said. Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord! Peace in heaven! Glory in the highest heaven! He, like Luke here, did not have any Hosannas in this praise of Jesus. Do you like the term and song “Hosanna”?
“Then another slave
Here is your mina!
I wrapped it up
In a piece of cloth.’”
καὶ ὁ ἕτερος ἦλθεν λέγων Κύριε, ἰδοὺ ἡ μνᾶ σου, ἣν εἶχον ἀποκειμένην ἐν σουδαρίῳ·
Luke indicated that Jesus said that another slave came in (καὶ ὁ ἕτερος ἦλθεν) and said to this lord, nobleman (λέγων Κύριε), that he had saved his mina (ἰδοὺ ἡ μνᾶ σου). He had wrapped it up in a piece of cloth, a handkerchief or a napkin (ἣν εἶχον ἀποκειμένην ἐν σουδαρίῳ). Instead of trading with this money, he simply wrapped it up to keep it safe. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 25:25, perhaps indicating a Q source. Unlike the first 2 slaves, this third slave did something else with his one talent. Jesus said this slave who had received one talent came forward to his master (προσελθὼν δὲ καὶ ὁ τὸ ἓν τάλαντον εἰληφὼς). However, this slave said that he was afraid (καὶ φοβηθεὶς), so he went and hid his talent in the ground (ἀπελθὼν ἔκρυψα τὸ τάλαντόν σου ἐν τῇ γῇ). Then he seemed happy to return this one talent back to his master. He said “Look! here it is (ἴδε ἔχεις τὸ σόν)!” He was glad to be rid of this burden of protecting this money from possible thieves or robbers. Sometimes people are too cautious, as they fear that they will lose something, as here in this parable story. Are you too cautious with your money?
“Then the second slave
Has made five minas.’”
καὶ ἦλθεν ὁ δεύτερος λέγων Ἡ μνᾶ σου, κύριε, ἐποίησεν πέντε μνᾶς.
Luke indicated that the second slave came in (καὶ ἦλθεν ὁ δεύτερος) and told this nobleman, his lord (λέγων Ἡ μνᾶ σου, κύριε), that he had bargained his one mina into 5 minas (ἐποίησεν πέντε μνᾶς). This second slave had made 5 times more than what he had originally had. There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 25:22, perhaps indicating a Q source. However, in Matthew, the slave only doubled his investment. Jesus said that the one who had received the 2 talents (προσελθὼν καὶ ὁ τὰ δύο τάλαντα) came forward. He explained to his lord and master (εἶπεν Κύριε) that he had given him 2 talents (δύο τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας), but now he had made, acquired, or gained 2 more talents (ἴδε ἄλλα δύο τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα). He had doubled his talents as a wise trader. Are you wise with your money?
“The Son of Man
To seek out
And to save
ἦλθεν γὰρ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ζητῆσαι καὶ σῶσαι τὸ ἀπολωλός.
Luke indicated that Jesus repeated this idea that the Son of Man came (ἦλθεν γὰρ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) to seek out (ζητῆσαι) and save (καὶ σῶσαι) the lost ones (τὸ ἀπολωλός). Jesus often used the 3rd person singular “Son of Man” to refer to himself. He had come to seek and save the lost ones, not the righteous people. Luke was the only synoptic with this story of Zacchaeus. How do you seek out the lost ones?