Luke indicated that this group questioned Jesus (καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν) respectfully, calling him teacher (λέγοντες Διδάσκαλε). They knew that Jesus spoke correctly (οἴδαμεν ὅτι ὀρθῶς λέγεις) and taught correctly (καὶ διδάσκεις). Jesus did not receive anyone (καὶ οὐ λαμβάνεις πρόσωπον), except on the basis of truth (ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ ἀληθείας), because he taught (διδάσκεις) the way of God (τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ). This was similar to Matthew, chapter 22:16, and Mark, chapter 12:14, almost word for word. Mark said that the Pharisees and the Herodians came and spoke to Jesus (καὶ ἐλθόντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ). They called Jesus their teacher or rabbi (Διδάσκαλε). They said that they knew that Jesus was sincere or truthful (οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς), because Jesus did not show any deference to anybody (εἶ καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός). He did not regard people with partiality based on their appearances (οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων). Thus, Jesus taught the truthful way of God (ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ ἀληθείας τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ διδάσκεις). Matthew said that the Pharisees sent their own disciples, not themselves, to Jesus (καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτῶν). But they also sent along some Herodians (μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν) also, the followers or political supporters of King Herod Antipas, the Roman client tetrarch king of Galilee, the one who had John the Baptist beheaded. This group spoke to Jesus in flattering terms (λέγοντας). They called Jesus their teacher or rabbi (Διδάσκαλε,). They said that they knew that Jesus was sincere or truthful, since he knew the truthful way of God (οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς εἶ καὶ τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ). He taught truthfulness (ἐν ἀληθείᾳ διδάσκεις). Jesus did not show any deference to anybody (καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός). He did not regard people with partiality based on their appearances (οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων). They were buttering up Jesus with these flattering statements about how he was so sincere and truthful, since he had not shown any deference or partiality to anybody. Do you flatter people to trick them?
Luke said that John (δὲ ὁ Ἰωάνης), one of the apostles, questioned Jesus (Ἀποκριθεὶς), calling him Master (Ἐπιστάτα). He said (εἶπεν) that they saw someone (εἴδομέν τινα) casting out demons (ἐκβάλλοντα δαιμόνια) in Jesus’ name (ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου). They tried to stop him (καὶ ἐκωλύομεν αὐτὸν), because he was not a Jesus follower with them (ὅτι οὐκ ἀκολουθεῖ μεθ’ ἡμῶν). There is something similar to this in Mark, chapter 9:38, but not in Matthew. Luke continued to follow the structure of Mark, who indicated that John, presumably John the son of Zebedee, approached Jesus. He called Jesus “teacher (Διδάσκαλε),” not Master (Ἐπιστάτα) as here in Luke. He said that they had seen someone casting out demons in the name of Jesus, who was not a follower of Jesus, like them. This unnamed exorcist was apparently not one of Jesus’ disciples. Perhaps he may have been originally one of Jesus’ disciples, but left this group. They tried to stop or prevent him from doing the exorcisms in the name of Jesus, precisely because he was not a fellow follower or disciple of Jesus. Do you think that someone can be a follower of Jesus without belonging to your Christian group?
Luke indicated that Jesus said to her (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ), calling her daughter (Θυγάτηρ), that her faith had saved her or made her well (ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε). Using the second person singular imperative, he told her that she was to go in peace (πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην). This ending to the healing of this woman with the flowing blood was nearly the same in Matthew, chapter 9:22, and Mark, chapter 5:34. Mark had pretty much the same narrative as Luke. Like the other healings, Jesus said to this woman that her faith had healed, cured, or saved her. He called her “daughter (Θυγάτηρ).” He told her to go in peace. This woman was cured of her affliction or disease, as faith was a key ingredient in this healing, as in every healing. Matthew was slightly different. He said that Jesus realized that power had gone forth from him. Jesus then turned around and saw her. He realized what she was thinking. Like the other times, Jesus said that her faith had saved or cured her. He called her “daughter (θύγατερ).” He told her to have courage and take heart. With that, this woman was cured at that very hour, rather than at the initial touching of the garment, as in the other 2 synoptics. Faith was a key ingredient in all these healings. How strong is your faith?
Once again, this is like Matthew, chapter 4:7, but here it is the 3rd rather than the 2nd temptation. The wording is almost the same, indicating a common source. Jesus answered the devil with a short response (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς). Jesus told the devil that it has been said (ὅτι Εἴρηται) that he should not tempt or test the Lord his God (Οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σο), as if the devil accepted God. Jesus used this biblical quotation from Deuteronomy, chapter 6:16, where Yahweh was calling for no more rebellions like that at Massah, when they complained about the lack of water. They were not to test Yahweh anymore. So too, the devil was not to test Jesus anymore.
Both Matthew, chapter 20:32, and Luke, chapter 18:40, have something similar. Mark said that Jesus stopped or stood still (καὶ στὰς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) when he heard all this noise, since he seemed to stop in his tracks. In a saying that is unique to Mark, Jesus then said (εἶπεν) to his disciples that they should call Bartimaeus to him (Φωνήσατε αὐτόν). Then Jesus’ disciples called this blind man (καὶ φωνοῦσιν τὸν τυφλὸν). They told him to have courage or take heart (λέγοντες αὐτῷ Θάρσει) and get up (ἔγειρε,) because Jesus was calling him (φωνεῖ σε).
Then there were the 2 sons of Zebedee (τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου), James (καὶ Ἰάκωβον) and John the brother of James (καὶ Ἰωάνην τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ Ἰακώβου). James was always listed first. However, Mark had a longer explanation about them, calling them the sons of thunder (ὅ ἐστιν Υἱοὶ Βροντῆς). He used the Aramaic name for thunder, Boanerges (καὶ ἐπέθηκεν αὐτοῖς ὄνομα Βοανηργές), and then explained it. Clearly, these 3 apostles were considered the most important with Peter at the top of this group and James second here. In all the listings, they are always first. However, Andrew, the brother of Peter comes after James and John here in Mark and in the Acts of the Apostles. Somehow, he must have been downgraded.
This is similar to Mark, chapter 15:39, except that there is no mention of an earthquake there, just the centurion statement alone. In Luke, chapter 23:47, the centurion simply said that this man was innocent, without any earthquake. There is nothing about a centurion or earthquake in John, chapter 19. Matthew said that the Roman centurion and the other Roman soldiers guarding Jesus (Ὁ δὲ ἑκατόνταρχος καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτοῦ τηροῦντες τὸν Ἰησοῦν), saw the seismic earthquake (ἰδόντες τὸν σεισμὸν). They saw what had taken place (καὶ τὰ γινόμενα). They were all very terrified and afraid (ἐφοβήθησαν σφόδρα). They said that truly this man was the Son of God (λέγοντες Ἀληθῶς Θεοῦ Υἱὸς ἦν οὗτος). It is interesting to note that the leader of the Roman soldiers, this centurion, who was in charge of 100 men, was afraid. He and his fellow Roman soldiers were the ones calling Jesus the Son of God. Once again, Matthew emphasized the goodness of the Roman leaders versus the evilness of the Jewish leaders.
This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 15:35. However this episode was not in Luke, chapter 23, or John, chapter 19. Matthew said that some of the bystanders heard the cry of Jesus on the cross (τινὲς δὲ τῶν ἐκεῖ ἑστηκότων ἀκούσαντες). They said that Jesus was calling for Elijah (ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἡλείαν φωνεῖ οὗτος). Elijah often came to help the good people who were in need. The name “Eli jah” was close to “Eli,” so that some people might have mistakenly thought that Jesus was crying for help from the ancient Israelite prophet Elijah. Elijah was also a forerunner of the messianic times as was the case of John the Baptist.
This is unique to Matthew, who recounted that Judas (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ Ἰούδας), the one who was betraying Jesus (ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν εἶπεν), addressed Jesus, calling him Rabbi (Ῥαββε), and not just teacher or lord. Judas responded that it surely was not him (εἶπεν Μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι). However, Jesus replied that he Judas had said it, so it must be so (λέγει αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶπας). This is a clear identification of Judas as the betrayer.
Then Matthew has Jesus take on the present generation, calling it childish. Luke, chapter 7:31, has a similar statement, indicating a possible common Q source. Jesus, via Matthew, wanted to know to what he should compare this generation to (Τίνι δὲ ὁμοιώσω τὴν γενεὰν ταύτην). He decided that it was like little kids sitting in the market places (ὁμοία ἐστὶν παιδίοις καθημένοις ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς) calling to each other (ἃ προσφωνοῦντα τοῖς ἑτέροις), as if playing games.