The foundation without money (Lk 14:29-14:29)

“Otherwise,

When he has laid

A foundation,

And not able

To finish it,

All will see it.

They will begin

To ridicule him.”

 

ἵνα μή ποτε θέντος αὐτοῦ θεμέλιον καὶ μὴ ἰσχύοντος ἐκτελέσαι πάντες οἱ θεωροῦντες ἄρξωνται αὐτῷ ἐμπαίζειν

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that otherwise, when he had laid the foundation (ἵνα μή ποτε θέντος αὐτοῦ θεμέλιον), he might not be able to finish it (καὶ μὴ ἰσχύοντος ἐκτελέσαι).  All would see it (πάντες οἱ θεωροῦντες).  They would begin to ridicule or mock him (ἄρξωνται αὐτῷ ἐμπαίζειν).  If there was no planning, this builder could not complete his tower after he built the foundation.  All the other people would see it and ridicule him.  Plan ahead!  Do you plan ahead of time?

Peter wants to make three tents (Lk 9:33-9:33)

“Just as they were

Leaving,

Peter said

To Jesus.

‘Master!

It is good

For us

To be here.

Let us make

Three tents,

One for you,

One for Moses,

And one for Elijah.’

He did not know

What he said.”

 

καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ διαχωρίζεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ εἶπεν ὁ Πέτρος πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν Ἐπιστάτα, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ ποιήσωμεν σκηνὰς τρεῖς, μίαν σοὶ καὶ μίαν Μωϋσεῖ καὶ μίαν Ἡλείᾳ, μὴ εἰδὼς ὃ λέγει.

 

Luke said that just as Moses and Elijah were leaving Jesus (καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ διαχωρίζεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ), Peter said to Jesus (εἶπεν ὁ Πέτρος πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν), calling him “Master (Ἐπιστάτα)” that it was a good that they were there (καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι).  He wanted to make 3 tents, tabernacles, or dwellings (καὶ ποιήσωμεν σκηνὰς τρεῖς), one for Jesus (μίαν σοὶ), one for Moses (καὶ μίαν Μωϋσεῖ), and one for Elijah (καὶ μίαν Ἡλείᾳ).  Apparently, Luke thought that Peter did not know what he was talking about (μὴ εἰδὼς ὃ λέγει).  Peter thought that Moses and Elijah were going to stay there.  These remarks of Peter can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 17:4, Mark, chapter 9:5, and here in LukeMark said that Peter responded to Jesus as the leader of this small group of apostles.  He called Jesus “Rabbi (Ῥαββεί)” or “Teacher”, not like Matthew as “Lord (Κύριε)” or like Luke, “Master (Ἐπιστάτα)”.  Peter said that it was good for them to be there, so that he was going to set up 3 tents or dwellings there, one for Jesus, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.  Peter was really the builder.  There was no negative comment in Mark, like in LukeMatthew said that Peter responded, once again as the leader of this small group of apostles.  He spoke to Jesus as the Lord (Κύριε).  It was good for them to be there.  If Jesus wanted it, Peter was going to set up 3 tents or dwellings here, one for Jesus, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.  Matthew did not make any disparaging remark about Peter either, the way that Luke had done.  How would you remember an important event?

Peter wants to make three tents (Mk 9:5-9:5)

“Then Peter said

To Jesus.

‘Rabbi!

It is good for us

To be here!

Let us make

Three dwellings,

One for you,

One for Moses,

And one for Elijah.’”

 

καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ Ῥαββεί, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ ποιήσωμεν τρεῖς σκηνάς, σοὶ μίαν καὶ Μωϋσεῖ μίαν καὶ Ἡλείᾳ μίαν.

 

These remarks of Peter can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 17:4, Luke, chapter 9:33, and here in Mark, but there are minor differences in all 3 accounts.  Mark said that Peter responded to Jesus (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος), once again as the leader of this small group of apostles.  He called Jesus “Rabbi” or “Teacher”, not like Matthew as “Lord” (λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ Ῥαββεί).  He said that it was good for them to be there (καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι).  Peter was going to set up 3 tents or dwellings here (καὶ ποιήσωμεν τρεῖς σκηνάς), one for Jesus (σοὶ μίαν), one for Moses (καὶ Μωϋσεῖ μίαν), and one for Elijah (καὶ Ἡλείᾳ μίαν).  Peter was really the builder.

The family of Jesus (Mk 6:3-6:3)

“‘Is not this the carpenter,

The son of Mary,

The brother of James,

Joses,

Judas,

And Simon?

Are not his sisters

Here with us?’

They took offense

At Jesus.”

 

οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τέκτων, ὁ υἱὸς τῆς Μαρίας καὶ ἀδελφὸς Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωσῆτος καὶ Ἰούδα καὶ Σίμωνος; καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ ὧδε πρὸς ἡμᾶς; καὶ ἐσκανδαλίζοντο ἐν αὐτῷ.

 

This story about the relatives of Jesus can be found in Matthew, chapter 13:55-56, while Luke does not go into this problem.  Mark said that the local people asked, whether Jesus was a carpenter (οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ῦ τέκτων), not a carpenter’s son as in Matthew?  A carpenter could also mean a builder or artisan.  However, Mark explicitly mentioned the name of Jesus’ mother, Mary (ὁ υἱὸς τῆς Μαρίας).  Were not his brothers there James, Joses, Simon, and Judas (καὶ ἀδελφὸς Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωσῆτος καὶ Ἰούδα καὶ Σίμωνος)?  There is a difference in one brother’s name mentioned by Matthew and Mark.  Could Joses be the same as Joseph with a simple letter mistake?  Were not all his sisters there with them also (καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ ὧδε πρὸς ἡμᾶς)?  These relatives took offense or were scandalized by Jesus (καὶ ἐσκανδαλίζοντο ἐν αὐτῷ).  Once again there is the question of the brothers and sisters of Jesus.  These brothers and sisters could be biological brothers or sisters, half-brothers and half-sisters from a first marriage of Joseph, or kissing cousins or other close cousins of the family.  The Hebrew and Aramaic language did not have a distinctive word for cousins, so that the words “brother” and “sister” were often used to mean more than a biological brother.  Just as today, people sometimes refer to others as brothers or sisters, when there is no biological link.  However, the Greek language did have a word for cousins.  Half-brothers often refer to themselves as brothers or sisters today also.  The traditional belief of Christians, even though the Reformation period, has been that Mary was a virgin, so that Jesus was her only son.  Here there are explicit names for the brothers of Jesus, James, Joses, Simon, and Judas, who may have been leaders in the early Christian community but were never mentioned as disciples.  They clearly were relatives of Jesus, exactly how is not clear

 

The family of Jesus (Mt 13:55-13:56)

“Is not this the carpenter’s son?

Is not his mother

Called Mary?

Are not his brothers

James,

Joseph,

Simon,

And Judas?

Are not all his sisters with us?

Where then did he

Get all this?’”

 

οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός; οὐχ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται Μαριὰμ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωσὴφ καὶ Σίμων καὶ Ἰούδας;

καὶ αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ οὐχὶ πᾶσαι πρὸς ἡμᾶς εἰσιν; πόθεν οὖν τούτῳ ταῦτα πάντα;

 

This story about the relatives of Jesus can be found in Mark, chapter 6:3.  The local people asked, was he not this carpenter’s son (οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός)?  Matthew did not use the carpenter’s name, when in the prologue Joseph played a major role.  A carpenter could also mean a builder or artisan.  However, Matthew explicitly mentioned the name of Jesus’ mother, Mary, who played a minor role in the prologue.  Was not his mother called Mary (οὐχ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται Μαριὰμ)?  Were not his brothers James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas (καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωσὴφ καὶ Σίμων καὶ Ἰούδας)?  Were not all his sisters there with them also (καὶ αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ οὐχὶ πᾶσαι πρὸς ἡμᾶς εἰσιν)?  Where then did he get all this  knowledge and power (πόθεν οὖν τούτῳ ταῦτα πάντα)?  Once again there is the question of the brothers and sisters of Jesus as mentioned earlier in chapter 12:46. These brothers and sisters could be biological brothers or sisters, half-brothers and half-sisters from a first marriage of Joseph, or kissing cousins or other close cousins of the family.  The Hebrew and Aramaic language did not have a distinctive word for cousins, so that the word “brother” and “sister” was often used to mean more than a biological brother.  Just as today, people sometimes refers to others as brothers or sisters, when there is no biological link.  Half-brothers often refer to themselves as brothers or sisters today also.  The traditional belief of Christians, even though the Reformation period, has been that Mary was a virgin, so that Jesus was her only son.  However, the Greek language did have a word for cousins.  Here there are explicit names for the brothers of Jesus, James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas, who may have been leaders in the early Christian community but were never mentioned as disciples.  They clearly were relatives of Jesus, exactly how is not clear

Yahweh questions Job about creation (Job 38:4-38:7)

“Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth?

Tell me!

Do you have understanding?

Who determined its measurements?

Surely you know!

Who stretched the line upon it?

On what were its bases sunk?

Who laid its cornerstone?

When the morning stars sang together,

All the heavenly beings shouted for joy.”

Clearly this is an enclosed finished creation. This is not an expanding concept of creation. There was a foundation, a cornerstone, measurements, and bases. The earthly creation was like a large building, like a temple. God was the master contractor builder. God asked Job where he was when creation was happening. He probably has no response. Who did all the measurements? Certainly not Job. Who laid the brick lines, the bases, or cornerstones. It certainly was not Job. However, all the heavenly beings sang and shouted for joy. Job was not among them.