Luke said that as Jesus was now approaching the path descending down (ἐγγίζοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἤδη πρὸς τῇ καταβάσει) from the Mount of Olives (τοῦ ὄρους τῶν Ἐλαιῶν), the whole multitude of the disciples began (ἤρξαντο ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν μαθητῶν) to praise God joyfully (χαίροντες αἰνεῖν τὸν Θεὸν) with a loud voice (φωνῇ μεγάλῃ) for all the deeds of power that they had seen (περὶ πασῶν ὧν εἶδον δυνάμεων). This is a unique use of the word, καταβάσει that means descent. Luke was the only writer who said that it was this descent of the Mount of Olives where all this took place. He also mentioned that only his disciples who was praising Jesus for all that he had done. Both Matthew, chapter 21:9, and Mark, chapter 11:8-9, are very similar but with slight differences. Mark said that the crowds or the people were in front of (οἱ προάγοντες) and behind Jesus (καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες). They were all shouting out (ἔκραζον). Matthew said that the crowds were in front of him and behind him (οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι οἱ προάγοντες αὐτὸν καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες), as they were all shouting out (ἔκραζον). John, chapter 12:13, on the other hand, simply said that they were shouting out. Have you ever been in a crowd that was shouting out things?
Luke said that this woman came up behind Jesus (ροσελθοῦσα ὄπισθεν). She touched the fringe of his cloak (ἥψατο τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ). Instantly, her bleeding stopped (καὶ παραχρῆμα ἔστη ἡ ῥύσις τοῦ αἵματος αὐτῆς). This woman touching Jesus can also be found in Matthew, chapter 9:21, and Mark, chapter 5:27-29, so that Mark might be the source. Mark said that this woman had heard about Jesus, so that she came up behind him with the crowd all around Jesus. She wanted to touch his cloak, with no mention of the fringes or edges of Jesus’ clothes. She was saying to herself, that if she only touched his cloak or garment, she would be healed or cured. Immediately, her flowing blood dried up or stopped when she touched it. She realized in her body that she was healed from her disease. This woman was aware of what was happening to her own body as she was healed. Matthew said that she came up behind Jesus, because she wanted to touch the fringe or the tassel edge of his cloak. These fringes (κρασπέδου) or bottom tassels often reminded people about the 10 commandments. She was thinking to herself, that if she only touched his cloak or garment, she would be healed or cured. She had a plan to help herself by touching the garment of Jesus. Have you ever tried to touch someone in a crowd?
Luke said that this sinful woman stood behind Jesus (καὶ στᾶσα ὀπίσω), at his feet (παρὰ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ), weeping (κλαίουσα). She began to bathe or wash his feet with her tears (τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἤρξατο βρέχειν τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ). Then she wiped his feet dry with the hair from her head (καὶ ταῖς θριξὶν τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτῆς ἐξέμασσεν). She continued kissing his feet (αὶ κατεφίλει τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ). Then she anointed them with the Myron ointment (καὶ ἤλειφεν τῷ μύρῳ). Mark, chapter 14:3, and Matthew, chapter 26:6-7, said that this unnamed sinning woman approached Jesus with an alabaster jar full of very expensive imported Indian nard ointment. This was an anointing oil or as later Christians would call it holy oil, “Myron (μύρου).” She broke the alabaster jar of ointment. Then she then poured it on his head. However, here the emphasis was on the feet of Jesus. This woman washed his feet with her tears, dried them with her loosened hair, and then anointed his feet with the oil or Myron. This was a highly unusual gesture. Have you ever had your feet anointed with oil?
Both Matthew, chapter 21:9, and Luke, chapter 19:38, are similar but with slight differences. Mark said that the crowds or the people were in front of (οἱ προάγοντες) and behind Jesus (καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες). They were all shouting out (ἔκραζον) “Hosanna” (Ὡσαννὰ)!” Jesus was the blessed one who came in the name of the Lord (Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου). Mark was the only one with the saying about the coming kingdom. He said that they were shouting blessed is the coming kingdom (Εὐλογημένη ἡ ἐρχομένη βασιλεία) of our ancestor or father David (οῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Δαυείδ). He did not actually call Jesus the son of David, as Matthew did. These hosannas should reach to the highest heaven (Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις). Hosanna was a Hebrew term of praise asking God to save them. This saying came from the Hallel chants that was used in the Passover celebration, based on Psalm 118:26. Later it became part of the Roman Catholic “Sanctus” chant in the Eucharistic celebration.
Jesus and Peter had a conversation that also can be found in Matthew, chapter 16:33. Then Jesus turned against Peter (ὁ δὲ ἐπιστραφεὶς). He looked at his disciples (καὶ ἰδὼν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ). He then warned, rebuked, or admonished Peter (ἐπετίμησεν Πέτρῳ), just as he had done to him. Jesus did not want an uprising among his followers. He told him (καὶ λέγει) to get behind him (Ὕπαγε ὀπίσω μου) because Peter was acting like Satan (Σατανᾶ), since he was only thinking or caring (ὅτι οὐ φρονεῖς) about human things (ἀλλὰ τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων), not divine things of God (τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ). Peter went from being a great leader to a tempting Satan trying to put obstacles in the way of a divine plan for Jesus. Be careful when you speak out against a leader.
This woman touching Jesus can be found in Matthew, chapter 9:20-21, and Luke, chapter 8:44, so that Mark might be the source. Mark said that this woman had heard about Jesus (ἀκούσασα τὰ περὶ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ). She came up behind Jesus within the crowd around him (ἐλθοῦσα ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ ὄπισθεν). She wanted to touch his cloak (ἥψατο τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ). Matthew had mentioned fringes or edges of Jesus’ clothes, but there was no mention of that here. She was saying (ἔλεγεν γὰρ), that if she only touched his cloak or garment (Ἐὰν ἅψωμαι κἂν τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ), she would be healed or cured (σωθήσομαι). She had a plan to help herself by touching the garment of Jesus.
This episode about the woman with hemorrhages interrupts the story about the leader and his dead daughter. However, it can be found in Mark, chapter 5:25-29, and Luke, chapter 8:43-44, except that Mark and Luke have a more elaborate story, about her background. Interesting enough, the word that Matthew uses for hemorrhages (αἱμορροοῦσα) is only found here, but nowhere else in the biblical literature. Mark and Luke said that she had flowing blood. All agree that she had been suffering for 12 years with this bleeding (Καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ αἱμορροοῦσα δώδεκα ἔτη). She came up behind Jesus (προσελθοῦσα ὄπισθεν). She wanted to touch the fringe or the tassel edge of his cloak (ἥψατο τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ). These fringes (κρασπέδου) or bottom tassels often reminded people about the 10 commandments. She was thinking to herself (ἔλεγεν γὰρ ἐν ἑαυτῇ), that if she only touched his cloak or garment (Ἐὰν μόνον ἅψωμαι τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ), she would be healed or cured (σωθήσομαι).
The German theologian Hermann Gunkel (1862-1932) first developed Formgechichte in an attempt to establish fixed literary patterns. These patterns then could go behind the present text to help establish the meaning and significance of the literary pattern in its original context. However, the meaning of form criticism has become fluid. The study of the biblical texts using form criticism has revealed a marvelous multiplicity of literary styles, forms, and methods used in the Bible.
Next God in his glory brought Ezekiel to the entrance of the Temple court. There was a hole in the wall there. Then God told Ezekiel, the son of man, to dig through the wall where the hole was. When Ezekiel dug through the wall, there was another entrance. Then God told Ezekiel to go inside and see all the vile abominations that they were being committed here. This seemed like some sort of secret worship service that was behind this wall.
Edom was south of the Dead Sea, south of Moab and south of Judah. Its biblical origin was the place where Esau, the twin brother of Jacob, went to live in Genesis, chapter 36. Yahweh has a series of questions for Edom. What happened to their wisdom, especially at Teman, perhaps a tribal group in Edom, since Teman was the name of the grandson of Esau. One of Job’s friends Eliphaz was a Temanite. Obadiah, an almost unknown minor prophet, seemed to take some of this diatribe against Edom into most of his work. Something has happened to the counsel and prudence of Edom. Has all their wisdom vanished? Dedan was a tribe involved in commerce. Both grape gatherers and thieves would leave something behind. They would not take everything. Thus the grape pickers would leave some grapes for the later gleaners to come along and get some of these overlooked grapes. The same is true about nightly thieves who would only take what they needed.