Luke indicated that Jesus began to tell the people another parable (Ἤρξατο δὲ πρὸς τὸν λαὸν λέγειν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην) about a certain man who planted a vineyard (ἄνθρωπος ἐφύτευσεν ἀμπελῶνα). He then leased it to farmer tenants (καὶ ἐξέδετο αὐτὸν γεωργοῖς). However, he went abroad to another country for a long time (καὶ ἀπεδήμησεν χρόνους ἱκανούς). This parable about the absentee vineyard landowner can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:33, and Mark, chapter 12:1, with more details about this vineyard. Mark said that Jesus began to speak to them in parables (Καὶ ἤρξατο αὐτοῖς ἐν παραβολαῖς λαλεῖν). This story was about a male landowner who planted a vineyard (ἀμπελῶνα ἄνθρωπος ἐφύτευσεν). He then put a fence around this vineyard (καὶ περιέθηκεν φραγμὸν) and dug a wine press (καὶ ὤρυξεν ὑπολήνιον). He even built a fortified watchtower (καὶ ᾠκοδόμησεν πύργον), so that it was a very nice vineyard. This story is reminiscent of the allegory of the vineyard from Isaiah, chapter 5:1-2. Isaiah had a song about a friend’s fertile field. He also dug out stones and planted choice vines. He put a tower in the middle to look over the vineyard with a carved wine vat there also. However, he got bad grapes instead of good grapes. Clearly, he did not get what he expected. However, this landowner here leased his land or rented it to farmer tenants (καὶ ἐξέδετο αὐτὸν γεωργοῖς). Then he left that region and went away to another country (καὶ ἀπεδήμησεν). Matthew also indicated that Jesus wanted them to listen to another parable (Ἄλλην παραβολὴν ἀκούσατε) about a male landowner (Ἄνθρωπος ἦν οἰκοδεσπότης), who planted a vineyard (ὅστις ἐφύτευσεν ἀμπελῶνα). He then put a fence around it (καὶ φραγμὸν αὐτῷ περιέθηκεν) and dug a wine press in it (καὶ ὤρυξεν ἐν αὐτῷ ληνὸν). He even built a fortified watchtower (καὶ ᾠκοδόμησεν πύργον). This seemed like a very nice vineyard, much like in Mark. However, this landowner also leased or rented this land to farmer tenants (καὶ ἐξέδετο αὐτὸν γεωργοῖς). Then he left that region and went away to another country (ἀπεδήμησεν). These last two things, renting and leaving the land, will cause him a problem. Have you had a problem with tenants?
Luke simply said that Jesus entered the Temple in Jerusalem (Καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν). Then he began to drive out those who were selling things there (ἤρξατο ἐκβάλλειν τοὺς πωλοῦντας). This description of Jesus in the Temple can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:12, almost word for word with Mark, chapter 11:15. However, they had more details in both of these accounts than the short summary here in Luke. In John, chapter 2:14-16, there was an even more elaborate description, but this action took place at the beginning of the ministry of Jesus, not at the end as here and other synoptics. Mark described how Jesus and his disciples entered Jerusalem (Καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα). When they entered the Temple (Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ ἱερόν), Jesus began to drive out or throw out (ἤρξατο ἐκβάλλειν) those who was selling (τοὺς πωλοῦντας), or buying (καὶ τοὺς ἀγοράζοντας) animals for the sacrifice offerings in the Temple (ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ). John said that Jesus had whips. He overturned the tables of the money-changers (καὶ τὰς τραπέζας τῶν κολλυβιστῶν), who converted foreign coins into the Temple shekels for the Temple offerings. He also overturned the chairs or the seats of those who were selling doves (καὶ τὰς καθέδρας τῶν πωλούντων τὰς περιστεράς κατέστρεψεν) for the Temple sacrifices. Matthew described how Jesus entered the Jerusalem Temple (Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὸ ἱερόν). Then Jesus drove out or threw out everyone who was selling, exchanging, or buying animals for the sacrifice offerings in the Temple (καὶ ἐξέβαλεν πάντας τοὺς πωλοῦντας καὶ ἀγοράζοντας ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ). He overturned the tables of the money-changers (καὶ τὰς τραπέζας τῶν κολλυβιστῶν κατέστρεψεν). He also overturned the chairs or the seats of those who were selling doves (καὶ τὰς καθέδρας τῶν πωλούντων τὰς περιστεράς) for the Temple sacrifices. All these people were functionaries of the Temple. They were trying to help people make the right sacrificial offerings there. Obviously, they made money from these sales, but this was the normal customary thing in the Temple. Jesus upset these people with this somewhat violent action. Up until this point, Jesus had been very mild mannered. Are you mild mannered or violent in your reactions to things that displease you?
Luke indicated that everyone who saw this (καὶ ἰδόντες πάντες) began to grumble (διεγόγγυζον). They said (λέγοντες) that Jesus had gone to stay with a sinful man (ὅτι Παρὰ ἁμαρτωλῷ ἀνδρὶ εἰσῆλθεν καταλῦσαι). Luke was the only Greek biblical writer to use the term διεγόγγυζον, that means to murmur among themselves, murmur greatly, or continue murmuring.All the people knew that Zacchaeus was the chief tax collector and thus working with and for the foreign governing Romans. These tax collectors were more political and distained because of their corruption and wealth. Now Jesus was going to stay with what many considered a public sinner, a tax collector. Luke was the only synoptic with this story of Zacchaeus, the chief tax collector. Would you stay with someone who was a known public sinner?
This long parable story about the 2 sons can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories. Luke indicated that Jesus said that the older brother became angry (ὠργίσθη). He refused to go in to the celebration (δὲ καὶ οὐκ ἤθελεν εἰσελθεῖν). His father came out of the celebration (ὁ δὲ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ ἐξελθὼν). He began to plead with him (παρεκάλει αὐτόν). Now the conflict begins. This seemed like such a nice happy story about a sinner who repented and was taken back by his father. But now there was the other son who really did not want to go along with this plan. He had been a hard-working farmer, while his brother went away carousing and wasting money. Do you feel closer to the hard-working brother or the loose living brother?
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that the other people would say (λέγοντες) that this man began to build it (ὅτι Οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἤρξατο οἰκοδομεῖν), but was not able to finish it (καὶ οὐκ ἴσχυσεν ἐκτελέσαι). This conclusion was simple. Do not start what you cannot finish! Have you ever starting something without finishing it?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that they all began to make excuses, to excuse themselves (καὶ ἤρξαντο ἀπὸ μιᾶς πάντες παραιτεῖσθαι). The first one said to the slave (ὁ πρῶτος εἶπεν αὐτῷ) that he had just bought a piece of land (Ἀγρὸν ἠγόρασα). Thus, he had to go out to see it (καὶ ἔχω ἀνάγκην ἐξελθὼν ἰδεῖν αὐτόν). Therefore, he politely (ἐρωτῶ σε) wanted to be excused from going to the banquet (ἔχε με παρῃτημένον). Matthew, chapter 22:3-5, said that they would not come or did not wish to come (καὶ οὐκ ἤθελον ἐλθεῖν), without giving excuses. Now, this was a problem. They have refused an invitation to the wedding banquet of God, the Father, the king. He had sent his slaves, the prophets or the apostles, to call them, but they still did not want to come to the wedding feast. In fact, Matthew said that the invitees made light of these inviting slaves. They disregarded or disrespected (οἱ δὲ ἀμελήσαντες) the invitation. They simply went on with their daily lives. They went (ἀπῆλθον) either to their own farm field (ὃς μὲν εἰς τὸν ἴδιον ἀγρόν), or to their trading business (ὃς δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἐμπορίαν αὐτοῦ). They were too busy to go to a wedding feast. Have you ever been too busy to go to a wedding reception?
Luke said that the crowds found out where Jesus was (οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι γνόντες) and followed him (ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ). Thus, Jesus welcomed them (καὶ ἀποδεξάμενος αὐτοὺς) and spoke to them (ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς) about the kingdom of God (περὶ τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ). He healed those who needed to be cured (καὶ τοὺς χρείαν ἔχοντας θεραπείας ἰᾶτο). A similar statement can be found in all four gospels, Matthew, chapter 14:14, Mark chapter 6:34, and John, chapter 6:2, plus here. Jesus continued his mission of compassion. Mark said that when Jesus went ashore, he saw a great crowd, without any indication of the size of this crowd. He then had compassion for them. However, instead of curing the people as in Matthew and Luke,Mark had Jesus talk to them as being sheep without a shepherd, as in Matthew, chapter 9:36. Then Jesus began to teach the people many things, rather than heal them. The emphasis in Mark here was on teaching rather than healing. Matthew, on the other hand, said that Jesus continued his mission of compassion by curing the ill and the sick people. When Jesus went ashore, he saw a great crowd. He then had compassion for them, so that he cured the feeble and ill people. One of the great acts of kindness of Jesus was curing people of their diseases or sicknesses. How do you treat sick people?
Luke uniquely said that this young dead man sat up (καὶ ἀνεκάθισεν ὁ νεκρὸς) and began to speak (καὶ ἤρξατο λαλεῖν). Then Jesus gave him to his mother (καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ). The actual raising from the dead meant that this formerly dead youth sat up and began to speak. Jesus then gave him to his mother in a very simple gesture. The miracle of raising a dead man had happened without any kind of physical gestures. Do you expect to rise after your death?
Luke said that the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the Pharisees (καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) began to reason or question Jesus (καὶ ἤρξαντο διαλογίζεσθαι). Was Jesus not speaking blasphemies (λέγοντες Τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ὃς λαλεῖ βλασφημίας)? Only God could forgive sins (τίς δύναται ἁμαρτίας ἀφεῖναι εἰ μὴ μόνος ὁ Θεός). Mark, chapter 2:6-7, and Matthew, chapter 9:3, are similar to Luke, so that Mark might be the source of this saying about the Pharisees and the Scribes saying that Jesus was committing blasphemy. Mark and Matthew did not mention the Pharisees, just the Scribes. Mark said that some of these Scribes were sitting there in this crowded room. They were reasoning or questioning in their hearts, but not to others. They wondered why Jesus was talking this way, since it appeared to be blasphemy. Blasphemers used scurrilous or irreverent language about God. How was Jesus able to forgive sins, since only God can forgive sins? This seems like a legitimate question.
Luke said that Jesus stood over her (καὶ ἐπιστὰς ἐπάνω αὐτῆς). He rebuked the fever (ἐπετίμησεν τῷ πυρετῷ), so that it left her (καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτήν). Immediately or instantly (παραχρῆμα), she got up (δὲ ἀναστᾶσα) and began to serve them (διηκόνει αὐτοῖς). Matthew, chapter 8:15, and Mark, chapter 1:31, have something similar, almost word for word stories. Luke was more dramatic here by having Jesus stand over her and rebuke the evil spirit, but Jesus did not touch her. Mark and Matthew said that Jesus came and touched her by the hand and lifted her up. Then the fever left her. She, then began to serve them with her normal hospitality. This was a typical healing that took place with a touching hand. The mother-in law of Simon, who was staying at his house, was cured so well that she was able to resume her normal hospitality activities.