Be like a child (Lk 18:17-18:17)

“Truly!

I say to you!

Whoever does not receive

The kingdom of God

As a little child

Will never enter it.”

 

ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὃς ἂν μὴ δέξηται τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ ὡς παιδίον, οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς αὐτήν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to them with a solemn proclamation (ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν) that whoever did not receive (ὃς ἂν μὴ δέξηται) the kingdom of God (τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ) as a little child (ὡς παιδίον) would never enter it (οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς αὐτήν).  This Jesus saying put an emphasis on becoming a child to enter the kingdom.  Similar comments can also be found in Mark, chapter 10:15, as well as Matthew, chapters 18:3, with some minor changes.  Mark said that Jesus made a solemn proclamation “Truly! I say to you!’ (ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν).”  They had to receive the kingdom of God (ὃς ἂν μὴ δέξηται τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ) like a little child (ὡς παιδίον).  Otherwise, they would never enter the kingdom of God (οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς αὐτήν).  Pure and simple, they had to have the attitude of a young child to enter the kingdom of God, just Luke mentioned here, almost word for word.  Matthew indicated that Jesus called or summoned a little child (καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος παιδίον).  He placed this little child in the middle of his disciples (ἔστησεν αὐτὸ ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν).  Then he made a solemn proclamation ‘Truly! I say to you!’ (καὶ εἶπεν Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν).  They had to change or convert to become like little children (ἐὰν μὴ στραφῆτε καὶ γένησθε ὡς τὰ παιδία).  Otherwise, they would never enter the kingdom of heaven (οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθητε εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν).  Whoever became humble like this little child in their midst (ὅστις οὖν ταπεινώσει ἑαυτὸν ὡς τὸ παιδίον τοῦτο), would be the greatest in the kingdom of heaven (οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ μείζων ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν).  The greatest in heaven would be the simple humble little children or those who acted like children, without power and dependent on other people.  Luke and Mark did not have a long explanation about being humble like this little child to be the greatest in the kingdom of heaven.  Notice also that once again, Matthew emphasized the kingdom of heaven and not the kingdom of God.  Are you humble like a little child?

 

Fasting and tithing (Lk 18:12-18:12)

“I fast

Twice a week.

I give a tenth

Of all my income.”

 

νηστεύω δὶς τοῦ σαββάτου, ἀποδεκατεύω πάντα ὅσα κτῶμαι.

 

Luke has Jesus tell this parable about a Pharisee and a tax collector that is only found in this gospel.  Luke indicated that Jesus said that this Pharisee said that he fasted twice a week (νηστεύω δὶς τοῦ σαββάτου) and he gave a tenth of all his income (ποδεκατεύω πάντα ὅσα κτῶμαι).  Normally, the Pharisees fasted on Mondays and Thursdays.  This was a good thing.  This Pharisee fasted and did not eat twice a week.  Besides, he tithed all his income, as he gave 10% to the Temple.  There was nothing wrong with this behavior.  He was a faithful Jewish person.  The problem was his attitude, not how he acted.  Was is your attitude toward your religious practices?

You are the witnesses (Lk 11:48-11:48)

“Thus,

You are witnesses.

You approve

Of the deeds

Of your ancestors.

They killed them.

But you built

Their tombs.”

 

ἄρα μάρτυρές ἐστε καὶ συνευδοκεῖτε τοῖς ἔργοις τῶν πατέρων ὑμῶν, ὅτι αὐτοὶ μὲν ἀπέκτειναν αὐτοὺς, ὑμεῖς δὲ οἰκοδομεῖτε.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus continued this same idea.  Jesus said that the Pharisees and lawyers were witnesses (ἄρα μάρτυρές ἐστε).  They approved of the deeds of their fathers or ancestors (καὶ συνευδοκεῖτε τοῖς ἔργοις τῶν πατέρων ὑμῶν), who killed the prophets (ὅτι αὐτοὶ μὲν ἀπέκτειναν αὐτοὺς), by building their tombs (ὅτι αὐτοὶ μὲν ἀπέκτειναν αὐτοὺς).  There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 23:31.  Jesus said that these Pharisees and Scribes testified or witnessed against themselves, since they admitted that they were the descendants or sons of those people who murdered the prophets.  Jesus then told them to finish up their work, using the measuring rod of their ancestors.  Thus, they had the same attitude as their ancestors.  However, there was very little evidence of Jewish prophets being killed.  Do you have the same attitudes of your parents and grandparents?

 

Be like a child (Mk 10:15-10:15)

“Truly!

I say to you!

Whoever does not receive

The kingdom of God

As a little child

Will never enter it.”

 

ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὃς ἂν μὴ δέξηται τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ ὡς παιδίον, οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς αὐτήν.

 

This story about Jesus wanting them to become like little children is in Matthew, chapter 18:3, and Luke, chapter 18:17, but slightly different.  Jesus put an emphasis on becoming like little children to enter the kingdom of heaven.  Mark said that Jesus made a solemn proclamation “Truly! I say to you!’ (ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν).”  They had to receive the kingdom of God (ὃς ἂν μὴ δέξηται τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ) like a little child (ὡς παιδίον).  Otherwise, they would never enter the kingdom of God (οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς αὐτήν).  There is no long explanation about being humble like this little child to be the greatest in the kingdom of heaven, as in Matthew.  Pure and simple, they had to have the attitude of a young child to enter the kingdom of God.

You are like your ancestors (Mt 23:31-23:32)

“You testify

Against yourselves.

You are descendants

Of those

Who murdered

The prophets.

Fill up,

Then,

The measure

Of your ancestors!”

 

ὥστε μαρτυρεῖτε ἑαυτοῖς ὅτι υἱοί ἐστε τῶν φονευσάντων τοὺς προφήτας

καὶ ὑμεῖς πληρώσατε τὸ μέτρον τῶν πατέρων ὑμῶν.

 

There is something similar in Luke, chapter 11:48.  The Pharisees and Scribes testified or witnessed against themselves (ὥστε μαρτυρεῖτε ἑαυτοῖς), since they admitted that they were the descendants or sons of those who murdered the prophets (ὅτι υἱοί ἐστε τῶν φονευσάντων τοὺς προφήτας).  Jesus then told them to fill up or complete the work with the measuring rod of their ancestors (καὶ ὑμεῖς πληρώσατε τὸ μέτρον τῶν πατέρων ὑμῶν).   Thus, they have the same attitude as their ancestors.  However, there is very little evidence of Jewish prophets being killed.

Values

We all have a general sense of values, to do good, avoid evil, and tell the truth.  However, there is a process of moral reasoning.  How do we apply this sense of values to concrete situations?  An example might be truth in advertising.  Quite often there is no outright lie, but rather a shading or emphasis on a certain good side.  Our community helps us shape this decision.  Your attitude to advertising will be different if you are working in advertising versus working in a consumer advocate group.

Anti-Evolution

The 19th century anti-evolution and anti-modern science attitude was basic to fundamentalism.  Darwin’s evolutionary theory in The Origin of the Species (1859) became the symbol around which most of the fundamentalism revolved.  Darwin held that everything was evolutionary.  Evolution was opposed to the concept of immovable static truths, particularly the first structured creation story of Genesis.  The height of the anti-evolution movement was reached in the 1925 Scopes Trial, although this still continues today with the question about teaching creationism versus evolution.