In the Book of Psalms.
‘The Lord said
To my Lord.
Sit at my right hand!’”
αὐτὸς γὰρ Δαυεὶδ λέγει ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου
Luke had Jesus continue by saying that David himself said that (αὐτὸς γὰρ Δαυεὶδ λέγει) in the Book of Psalms (ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν) that the Lord said to my Lord (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου) to sit at my right hand (Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Here is an explicit reference to the Book of the Psalms with the assumption that King David (1000 BCE) had written this psalm. Thus, citing Psalm 110 was like citing David himself. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:43-44, and Mark, chapter 12:36. Mark used Psalm 110:1 as the basis of this question about David and the Messiah Christ. Mark indicated that Jesus said that David himself (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ εἶπεν), inspired by the Holy Spirit (ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῳ), spoke about the “Lord (Κύριος).” In Psalm 110:1, David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Matthew indicated that Jesus asked them what did David mean when, inspired by the Spirit, he called the future Messiah, a son of David, “Lord” (Πῶς οὖν Δαυεὶδ ἐν Πνεύματι καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον λέγω). Jesus then cited Psalm 110:1, where David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Thus, there was an attempt to give Davidic authority to this biblical saying. Do you like the psalms?
Asked him a question.
Moses wrote for us
That if a man’s brother dies,
Leaving a wife childless,
The man shall marry
He will raise up children
For his brother.’”
λέγοντες Διδάσκαλε, Μωϋσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν, ἐάν τινος ἀδελφὸς ἀποθάνῃ ἔχων γυναῖκα, καὶ οὗτος ἄτεκνος ᾖ, ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ.
Luke said that these Sadducees asked Jesus a question (λέγοντες), respectfully calling him “Teacher (Διδάσκαλε)!” They said that Moses wrote for them (Μωϋσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν) in Deuteronomy, chapter 25:5-10, that if a man’s brother dies (ἐάν τινος ἀδελφὸς ἀποθάνῃ), leaving a wife childless (ἔχων γυναῖκα, καὶ οὗτος ἄτεκνος ᾖ), that man should marry the widow (ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα) to raise up children or seed for his brother (καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ). Luke was the only Greek biblical writer to use this word ἄτεκνος, that means childless. Matthew, chapter 22:24, and Mark, chapter 12:19, are almost word for word as here in Luke. Mark said that these Sadducees addressed Jesus very respectfully as “Teacher (Διδάσκαλε).” They quoted a Mosaic text that Moses had written for them (Μωϋσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν), If a man’s brother should die (ὅτι ἐάν τινος ἀδελφὸς ἀποθάνῃ) leaving behind a wife (καὶ καταλίπῃ γυναῖκα) without any children (καὶ μὴ ἀφῇ τέκνον), his living brother should take his dead brother’s widow as his wife (ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα). He would then raise up the descendant children or seeds for his brother (καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ). Matthew indicated that these Sadducees also addressed Jesus very respectfully as “Teacher” or “Rabbi (λέγοντες Διδάσκαλε).” They quoted a Mosaic text, as Moses said (Μωϋσῆς εἶπεν). If a man died without any children (Ἐάν τις ἀποθάνῃ μὴ ἔχων τέκνα), his brother should marry the widow (ἐπιγαμβρεύσει ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ). He would then raise up the descendants for his brother (καὶ ἀναστήσει σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ). This levirate law goes back as far as Tamar in Genesis, chapter 38:1-30, with the story of Judah’s 3 sons and Tamar, the original wife of Er. The brother of the deceased was supposed to marry his brother’s widow if he had no sons. The widow was not to marry outside her family. It also assumes that the brother lived close by or in the same house as his brother. There was no indication of whether the brother was married or not, but this seems to assume a younger brother. This was an attempt to prolong the heritage and name of a person, which was common in ancient times. The punishment for the brother’s refusal was an insult, rather than any physical punishment. Would you marry the wife or husband or your dead brother or sister?
“Next the vineyard owner sent
They also beat him.
They insulted him.
They sent him away
καὶ προσέθετο ἕτερον πέμψαι δοῦλον· οἱ δὲ κἀκεῖνον δείραντες καὶ ἀτιμάσαντες ἐξαπέστειλαν κενόν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that this landowner proceeded to send another slave (καὶ προσέθετο ἕτερον πέμψαι δοῦλον). These wicked tenants also beat (οἱ δὲ κἀκεῖνον δείραντες) and insulted him (καὶ ἀτιμάσαντες). They also sent him away empty-handed (ἐξαπέστειλαν κενόν). This beating of the second slave can be found in Mark, chapter 12:4, and Matthew, chapter 21:36, but there were multiple slaves in Matthew. Mark said that this landowner sent another slave again to them (καὶ πάλιν ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἄλλον δοῦλον) in another attempt to get his share of the crop. This time, they beat or struck this second slave over the head (κἀκεῖνον ἐκεφαλίωσαν) and insulted or shamed him (καὶ ἠτίμασαν). These wicked tenants did the same thing to him that they had done to the first slave. There definitely was a pattern developing here. Matthew had multiple individual slaves in both accounts, instead of one slave. This landowner sent more slaves (πάλιν ἀπέστειλεν ἄλλους δούλους) this second time around. This time, there was more than the 3 like the first time (πλείονας τῶν πρώτων), without any indication of how many. However, the wicked tenants did the same thing to them (καὶ ἐποίησαν αὐτοῖς ὡσαύτως) that they had done to the first group of slaves, which included killing and stoning them, once again without being specific. How would you treat bad tenants?
“As Jesus rode along,
People kept spreading
On the road.”
πορευομένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ὑπεστρώννυον τὰ ἱμάτια ἑαυτῶν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ.
Luke said that as Jesus rode (πορευομένου δὲ αὐτοῦ) along the road on this colt, people kept spreading their cloaks (ὑπεστρώννυον τὰ ἱμάτια ἑαυτῶν) on the road (ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ). Once again, the word ὑπεστρώννυον, that means to spread under, was unique to Luke, and not found elsewhere in the Greek biblical literature. However, both Matthew, chapter 21:8, and Mark, chapter 11:8 were more similar to each other than to Luke. They added the idea of branches on the road that was not here in Luke. Mark said that many people (καὶ πολλοὶ) spread out their outer garments, cloaks, or coats on the road (τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν ἔστρωσαν εἰς τὴν ὁδόν). Meanwhile, others were cutting down leafy branches from the surrounding fields (ἄλλοι δὲ στιβάδας, κόψαντες ἐκ τῶν ἀγρῶν), also spreading out these branches on the road. Matthew emphasized the large crowds. He said that a very large crowd of people (ὁ δὲ πλεῖστος ὄχλος) spread out their outer garments or coats on the road (ἔστρωσαν ἑαυτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ,). Meanwhile, others were cutting down branches from the surrounding trees (ἄλλοι δὲ ἔκοπτον κλάδους ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων). They also spread out these branches on the road (καὶ ἐστρώννυον ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ). This idea of laying garments on the road can be found in 2 Kings, chapter 9:13, to protect the feet of the king. Clearly, this was an attempt to connect Jesus with the Davidic kingship. Was Jesus to be the new king of Israel as a son of David? This event has become the basis for the great Palm Sunday celebration, the triumphant entrance of Jesus into Jerusalem. Actually, only John, chapter 12:13, called these palm branches. Do you like the palms on Palm Sunday?
“But the twelve apostles
All these things.
What he said
They did not grasp
What was said.”
καὶ αὐτοὶ οὐδὲν τούτων συνῆκαν, καὶ ἦν τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο κεκρυμμένον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν, καὶ οὐκ ἐγίνωσκον τὰ λεγόμενα.
Luke uniquely added that 12 apostles did not understood anything about all these things (καὶ αὐτοὶ οὐδὲν τούτων συνῆκαν) about his future death and resurrection. In fact, what Jesus said was hidden from them (καὶ ἦν τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο κεκρυμμένον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν), because they did not grasp what he said (καὶ οὐκ ἐγίνωσκον τὰ λεγόμενα). Despite Jesus’ attempt to inform his elite 12 apostles, they still did not understand what he was talking about. This is somewhat similar to earlier in chapter 9:45, where Luke said that the disciples did not understand this saying of Jesus (οἱ δὲ ἠγνόουν τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο), because its meaning was veiled or concealed from them (καὶ ἦν παρακεκαλυμμένον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν). Thus, they could not comprehend it (ἵνα μὴ αἴσθωνται αὐτό). However, they were afraid (καὶ ἐφοβοῦντο) to ask Jesus (ἐρωτῆσαι αὐτὸν) about the meaning of this saying (περὶ τοῦ ῥήματος τούτου). This saying about the reaction of the disciples can also be found in Matthew, chapter 17:23, and Mark, chapter 9:32. Mark, like Luke, said that the disciples did not understand what Jesus was talking about. They were afraid to ask or question him about this. Once again, Mark indicated that the disciples did not seem to understand everything that was going on around them. Matthew, on the other hand, said that on hearing this, the disciples were greatly vexed, pained, or distressed, since this was shocking news to them. Do you always understand what Jesus is talking about?
“At his gate,
Lay a poor man
Covered with sores.”
πτωχὸς δέ τις ὀνόματι Λάζαρος ἐβέβλητο πρὸς τὸν πυλῶνα αὐτοῦ εἱλκωμένος
This parable story about the poor man Lazarus and an unnamed rich man is only found in Luke, not in the other gospels. Luke indicated that Jesus said that a certain poor beggar (πτωχὸς δέ τις) lay at the gate of this rich man (ἐβέβλητο πρὸς τὸν πυλῶνα αὐτοῦ). He was named Lazarus (ὀνόματι Λάζαρος) and was covered with sores (εἱλκωμένος). Once again, Luke is the only one in all the biblical literature to use this Greek word εἱλκωμένος that means to wound, to ulcerate, or to suffer from sores. It was also unusual to give a name to this poor person, since most of the Jesus parables usually had unnamed people. The rich man was unnamed. Was this Lazarus connected to the brother of Martha and Mary in John, chapter 11? From this story, we know that Lazarus was poor and had many sores. There was no attempt to line him up with the women of Bethany, Martha and Mary. Do you personally know a poor person?
“Now about eight days
After these sayings,
Jesus took with him
They went up
On a mountain
Ἐγένετο δὲ μετὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους ὡσεὶ ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ, καὶ παραλαβὼν Πέτρον καὶ Ἰωάνην καὶ Ἰάκωβον ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος προσεύξασθαι.
Luke said that about 8 days (ὡσεὶ ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ), after these sayings (Ἐγένετο δὲ μετὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους), Jesus took with him (καὶ παραλαβὼν) Peter (Πέτρον), John (καὶ Ἰωάνην), and James (καὶ Ἰάκωβον), his 3 favorite apostles. They went up on a mountain (ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος) to pray (προσεύξασθαι). Going to a special mountain after these sayings can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 17:1, Mark, chapter 9:2, and here in Luke. Mark and Matthew are exactly the same, almost word for word, but Luke talked about 8 days and going to pray on a mountain. Mark said that this activity took place 6 days later, probably after the proclamation of Peter about Jesus being the Christ messiah. Jesus took with him Peter, and the 2 sons of Zebedee, James and John. There was no mention of Peter’s brother Andrew. Jesus brought these 3 disciples to an unnamed high mountain, presumably near the Sea of Galilee. There was no mention of any prayer. Matthew, like Mark, said that this activity took place 6 days later, not 8 days as in Luke. Jesus took with him Peter, James, and his brother John. Jesus brought these 3 disciples to an unnamed high mountain, presumably near the Sea of Galilee, probably Mount Tabor in lower Galilee or Mount Hermon near Caesarea Philippi, much further north. They were alone by themselves, not with any of the other apostles or disciples. Going up on a high mountain was an attempt to have a special communication with God, just as Moses had done in the Torah. Jesus was transfigured or transformed in front of these 3 apostles. Was this a foretaste of the resurrected Jesus Christ? Do you expect to see a transfigured Jesus Christ?
To tell no one about
What had happened.”
καὶ ἐξέστησαν οἱ γονεῖς αὐτῆς· ὁ δὲ παρήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν τὸ γεγονός
Luke said that her parents were astonished (καὶ ἐξέστησαν οἱ γονεῖς αὐτῆς). However, Jesus ordered them to tell no one what had happened (ὁ δὲ παρήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν τὸ γεγονός). The ending to this story is different in Matthew, chapter 9:26 than that of Mark, chapter 5:43 and Luke, who are similar. Mark indicated that Jesus strictly instructed or ordered them that no one should know about this incident. That would have been hard because this was such a public event. In Matthew, this event spread all over this land or district without any attempt to keep it quiet, which was the opposite of Luke and Mark. If you saw a miraculous event, would you be quiet about it or tell everyone?
“Jesus was the son,
As was thought,
The son of Heli.”
ὢν υἱός, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, Ἰωσὴφ, τοῦ Ἡλεὶ
Luke said that Jesus was the son (ὢν υἱός), as was thought or supposed (ὡς ἐνομίζετο), of Joseph (Ἰωσὴφ,), the son of Heli (τοῦ Ἡλεὶ). Right off the bat, there is a problem with the differences between the genealogies of Matthew and Luke. The end of the genealogy of Matthew, chapter 1:16, is Joseph (Ἰωσὴφ) with his father Jacob (Ἰακὼβ). Perhaps the names of Jacob and Joseph were an attempt to connect Jesus with the great Joseph, the son of Jacob, who brought the sons of Jacob to Egypt. However, compared to the text here in Luke, there is a difference with the father of Joseph, the grandfather of Jesus. Luke called him “the son of Heli,” not “the son of Jacob.” Luke said that Joseph was the so-called father of Jesus. Thus, it might seem simple enough to compare this genealogy of Jesus with the one in Matthew, chapter 1:1-1:17. Both the gospels of Matthew and Luke listed the family tree of Jesus. These genealogies were theological statements with different parent genealogies and different audiences. Matthew, went from Abraham to Jesus, so that Jesus was the fulfillment of the Jewish messianic expectations. The theme of David was important, since Joseph was called the son of David. Matthew explained that there were 3 sections of 14 generations. One section went from the call of Abraham to the accession of David as king. The second grouping went from David to the Babylonian exile. The final section went from the Exile to the coming of the Messiah. The Gospel of Luke genealogy, on the hand, goes from Jesus to Adam to God. Luke’s view was more universal. Jesus could trace his roots back to God. Luke, who had the best Greek, was apparently writing for the gentiles of the Pauline Churches. The Son of God was a more meaningful term. Luke spoke of the Son of Adam, the second Adam, a theme that Paul also used. Jesus had both divine and human origins. This was not difficult for Greeks, since their gods were always having relations with humans in their mythical stories. Thus, there are two different genealogies for Joseph, with only one common person, David. This left Jesus with 2 paternal grandfathers, Jacob and Heli. Matthew listed 52 people, but Luke has 77 ancestors because he went further back in time. It is what it is.