Luke indicated that Jesus said that the vineyard owner would come (ἐλεύσεται) and destroy these farmer tenants (καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργοὺς τούτους). He would give this vineyard to others (καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις). When they heard this (ἀκούσαντες), they said (δὲ εἶπαν) “May it never happen (Μὴ γένοιτο)!” The end of this parable of the wicked vineyard tenants can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:40-41, and Mark, chapter 12:9. Mark indicated that Jesus continued with his story by asking a question. What will the lord or the owner of that vineyard do (τί ποιήσει ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος)? Jesus responded to his own question that this landowner would come and destroy these evil tenants (ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργούς). Then he would lease out or rent the vineyard to other tenants (καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις). Matthew also had Jesus continue with his story by asking a question. When the lord or the owner of that vineyard came to his vineyard (ὅταν οὖν ἔλθῃ ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος), what would he do to those wicked tenants (τί ποιήσει τοῖς γεωργοῖς ἐκείνοις)? The apostles, and not Jesus himself, responded to Jesus (λέγουσιν αὐτῷ) by saying that this landowner would put those evil wretches to a miserable death (Κακοὺς κακῶς ἀπολέσει αὐτούς). Then he would lease out or rent the vineyard to other tenants (καὶ τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἐκδώσεται ἄλλοις γεωργοῖς), who would give him the produce at the harvest time (οἵτινες ἀποδώσουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς καρποὺς ἐν τοῖς καιροῖς αὐτῶν). This land owner was still looking for good tenants or renters. In Mark and Matthew, there was nothing about people saying “May it never happen!” Would you be a good tenant farmer?
Luke indicated that Jesus said to him (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς). Why did he call Jesus good (Τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν), since no one was good except God alone (οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ Θεός)? This response of Jesus can also be found in Mark, chapter 10:18-19, and Matthew, chapter 19:17, but slightly different, since Luke and Mark are closer to each other, almost word for word. They both had this man call Jesus the good teacher. Mark said that Jesus responded to him (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ) by asking a question. Why did he call Jesus good (Τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν)? No one person was good (οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς). God alone was good (εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ Θεός). In this response, Jesus appears to distance himself from the good God. Matthew did not mention that there was only one good one, God, as in Luke and in Mark, since this man was only looking for a good deed. Jesus responded (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ) to this question by asking a question. Why did he ask about good (Τί με ἐρωτᾷς περὶ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ), since there was only one good one (εἷς ἐστιν ὁ ἀγαθός)? Then Jesus gave the classic answer for those who wanted to enter eternal life (εἰ δὲ θέλεις εἰς τὴν ζωὴν εἰσελθεῖν). He should keep the commandments or laws (τήρει τὰς ἐντολάς), since there had been a question about what good deed he could do. Jesus’ response was the commandments. Do you follow the commandments of God?
Luke indicated that Jesus continued with his unique story about the king planning a war. Jesus said that if this king realized that he could not defeat the other king (εἰ δὲ μήγε), then, while this other king was still far away (ἔτι αὐτοῦ πόρρω ὄντος), he would send a delegation (πρεσβείαν ἀποστείλας), asking for peace terms (ἐρωτᾷ τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην). Make peace instead of war, if you are outmanned and have no realistic hope of success. Would you rather fight or make peace?
Luke uniquely said that Jesus responded (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) to this Pharisee. He called him Simon (εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν Σίμων). He said he had something to say to him (ἔχω σοί τι εἰπεῖν). This Simon responded respectfully, calling him teacher (ὁ δέ Διδάσκαλε), and asking him to speak (εἰπέ, φησίν). Who is this Simon the Pharisee? He was not mentioned in the other canonical gospels. There are similarities between this Simon the Pharisee and the Simon the leper mentioned in Matthew, chapter 26:6, and Mark, chapter 14:3, but those occasions were later in Bethany. The identity of that Simon the leper is also unknown. However, it could have been someone whom Jesus had cured from leprosy, who became his disciple. Nevertheless, this was a very respectful conversation here between Simon and Jesus. Are you respectful in your conversations?
Luke said that when Jesus perceived their questionings and what they were considering (ἐπιγνοὺς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς αὐτῶν), he answered by asking them (ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) why were they raising such questions in their hearts (ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς). Mark, chapter 2:8, and Matthew, chapter 9:4, are similar to Luke, with Luke closer to Mark, so that Mark might be the source of this saying. Mark said that Jesus immediately seemed to know what they were thinking. Jesus then asked them why they were discussing or raising such questions in their hearts, just like here. He asked them why they had such evil thoughts, as indicated in Matthew. Jesus turned the tables on them by exposing their evil thoughts.
Good news! Luke said that Joseph and Mary found Jesus after 3 days (καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ ἡμέρας τρεῖς). That probably means that he was found on the 3rd day since they traveled one day out and one day back on their journey. These 3 days will play an important role in the resurrection story, because Jesus will rise from the dead after 3 days. Thus, the distress of these parents will be like the distress of the disciples of Jesus after his death. The parents of Jesus found him in the Temple (εὗρον αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ), just like the women who found the empty tomb on the 3rd day. Jesus, the 12-year-old was sitting in the middle or among the Temple masters or teachers (καθεζόμενον ἐν μέσῳ τῶν διδασκάλων), experts in the Jewish religion and traditions. He was both listening to them (καὶ ἀκούοντα αὐτῶν) and asking them questions (καὶ ἐπερωτῶντα αὐτούς). Nothing had been mentioned about his prior schooling in Nazareth, if there was any. Had he been trained at the local synagogue in Nazareth?
Luke said that Simeon took Jesus into his arms (καὶ αὐτὸς ἐδέξατο αὐτὸ εἰς τὰς ἀγκάλας). He then blessed God (καὶ εὐλόγησεν τὸν Θεὸν). It would seem a little odd for an old man to take a small child under two-months old into his arms without asking the mother if it was okay. However, the blessing of God did not seem out of place here in the Jerusalem Temple.
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 27:46. Luke, chapter 23, and John, chapter 19, did not have these words of Jesus hanging on the cross. Mark said that at three o’clock in the afternoon, the ninth hour (καὶ τῇ ἐνάτῃ ὥρᾳ), Jesus cried with a loud voice saying (ἐβόησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς φωνῇ μεγάλῃ), “Eloi! Eloi! Lema sabachthani (Ἐλωῒ Ἐλωῒ λαμὰ σαβαχθανεί)?” This cry is slightly different than Matthew. Then Mark explained what this meant with a translation (ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον), since this was a mixture of the Hebrew and Aramaic word for God in the first verse from Psalm 22:1. “Oh my God! Oh my God (Ὁ Θεός μου ὁ Θεός μου)! Why have you forsaken, abandoned, or deserted me (εἰς τί ἐγκατέλιπές με)?” This Psalm 22 was a psalm of David asking for help or deliverance from a serious illness or persecution, much like the suffering servant in Isaiah, chapters 52-53. Thus, Jesus, the suffering servant, the son of David, quoted the first verse of this psalm as he hung on the cross. Why was there no help coming from God?
The end of the parable of the wicked tenants can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:40-41, and Luke, chapter 20:15-16. Jesus continued with his story by asking a question. What will the lord or the owner of that vineyard do (τί ποιήσει ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος)? Jesus responded himself rather than the apostles, as in Matthew. Jesus said that this landowner would come and destroy these evil tenants (ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργούς). Then he would lease out or rent the vineyard to other tenants (καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις). This land owner was still looking for good tenants or renters.
Both Matthew, chapter 21:9, and Luke, chapter 19:38, are similar but with slight differences. Mark said that the crowds or the people were in front of (οἱ προάγοντες) and behind Jesus (καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες). They were all shouting out (ἔκραζον) “Hosanna” (Ὡσαννὰ)!” Jesus was the blessed one who came in the name of the Lord (Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου). Mark was the only one with the saying about the coming kingdom. He said that they were shouting blessed is the coming kingdom (Εὐλογημένη ἡ ἐρχομένη βασιλεία) of our ancestor or father David (οῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Δαυείδ). He did not actually call Jesus the son of David, as Matthew did. These hosannas should reach to the highest heaven (Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις). Hosanna was a Hebrew term of praise asking God to save them. This saying came from the Hallel chants that was used in the Passover celebration, based on Psalm 118:26. Later it became part of the Roman Catholic “Sanctus” chant in the Eucharistic celebration.