What authority? (Lk 20:2-20:2)

“They said to Jesus.

‘Tell us!

By what authority

Are you doing

These things?

Who is it

Who gave you

This authority?’”

 

καὶ εἶπαν λέγοντες πρὸς αὐτόν Εἰπὸν ἡμῖν ἐν ποίᾳ ἐξουσίᾳ ταῦτα ποιεῖς, ἢ τίς ἐστιν ὁ δούς σοι τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην;

 

Luke indicated that these chief priests, Scribes, and elders asked Jesus (καὶ εἶπαν λέγοντες πρὸς αὐτόν) by what authority he was doing all these things (Εἰπὸν ἡμῖν ἐν ποίᾳ ἐξουσίᾳ ταῦτα ποιεῖς)?  They wanted him to tell them who gave him this authority (ἢ τίς ἐστιν ὁ δούς σοι τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην)?  These questions seemed like legitimate inquiries, since Jesus was not a Levitical priest or an ordained rabbi.  This questioning of the authority of Jesus can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:23, and Mark, chapter 11:28, almost word for word.  Mark said that these chief priests, Scribes, and elders asked Jesus (καὶ ἔλεγον αὐτῷ) by what authority was he doing all these things (Ἐν ποίᾳ ἐξουσίᾳ ταῦτα ποιεῖς) in the Temple?  Who gave him his authority to do all these things (ἢ τίς σοι ἔδωκεν τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην ἵνα ταῦτα ποιῇς)?  Matthew said that they wanted to know by what authority was he doing all these things (Ἐν ποίᾳ ἐξουσίᾳ ταῦτα ποιεῖς)?  Who gave him his authority (καὶ τίς σοι ἔδωκεν τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην)?  This important Jewish Jerusalem delegation came to Jesus with a legitimate question.  They wanted to know where he came from and what he was trying to do.  Have you ever questioned the authority of anyone?

House of prayer (Lk 19:46-19:46)

“Jesus said.

‘It is written,

‘My house

Shall be

A house of prayer.’

But you have made it

A den of robbers.’”

 

λέγων αὐτοῖς Γέγραπται Καὶ ἔσται ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς· ὑμεῖς δὲ αὐτὸν ἐποιήσατε σπήλαιον λῃστῶν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to them (λέγων αὐτοῖς) that it was written (Γέγραπται) that my house shall be a house of prayer (Καὶ ἔσται ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς).  However, they had made it into a den or hideout of robbers or thieves (ὑμεῖς δὲ αὐτὸν ἐποιήσατε σπήλαιον λῃστῶν).  This first citation about the house of prayer is from 3rd Isaiah, chapter 56:7, while the second citation about how they have made his Temple into a den of robbers is from Jeremiah, chapter 7:11.  These biblical citations of Jesus in the Temple can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:13, and Mark, chapter 11:17, almost word for word.  John, chapter 2:16-17, was slightly different, since he used a citation from Psalm 69:9, where the Psalmist or David had great zeal for the house of Yahweh that he was about to construct.  Mark said that Jesus was teaching (καὶ ἐδίδασκεν).  He asked them if they knew where it was written in Scripture (καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Οὐ γέγραπται) that his house shall be called a house of prayer (ὅτι Ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται) for all the nations (πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν).  Matthew and Luke did not mention all the nations.  However, the Temple functionaries were making it into a den or hideout of robbers or bandits (ὑμεῖς δὲ πεποιήκατε αὐτὸν σπήλαιον λῃστῶν).  Likewise, Matthew said that Jesus told them that it was written in Scripture (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Γέγραπται) that his house shall be called a house of prayer (Ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται).  However, they were making it into a den or hideout of robbers or bandits (ὑμεῖς δὲ αὐτὸν ποιεῖτε σπήλαιον λῃστῶν).  In all cases, Jesus was upset that the Jerusalem Temple house of prayer had been hijacked by a bunch of thieves and robbers.  What kind of house of prayer do you pray in?

Why are you untying the colt? (Lk 19:33-19:33)

“As they were untying

The colt,

Its owners asked them.

‘Why are you untying

The colt?’”

 

λυόντων δὲ αὐτῶν τὸν πῶλον εἶπαν οἱ κύριοι αὐτοῦ πρὸς αὐτούς Τί λύετε τὸν πῶλον;

 

Luke said that that as these two disciples were untying the young colt (λυόντων δὲ αὐτῶν τὸν πῶλον), its owners or masters asked them (εἶπαν οἱ κύριοι αὐτοῦ πρὸς αὐτούς) why were they untying this colt (Τί λύετε τὸν πῶλον)?  This is similar to Mark, chapter 11:5, since Matthew had nothing about this.  Mark said that some of the bystanders (καί τινες τῶν ἐκεῖ ἑστηκότων), not the owners, spoke to Jesus’ two unnamed disciples (ἔλεγον αὐτοῖς).  They asked them what they were doing (Τί ποιεῖτε)?  Why were they untying the colt (λύοντες τὸν πῶλον)?  Jesus had told them to expect these kinds of questions.  Would you question someone who was taking your animal?

Collect interest (Lk 19:23-19:23)

“Why then did you not

Put my money

Into the bank?

Then,

When I returned,

I could have collected it

With interest.”

 

καὶ διὰ τί οὐκ ἔδωκάς μου τὸ ἀργύριον ἐπὶ τράπεζαν; κἀγὼ ἐλθὼν σὺν τόκῳ ἂν αὐτὸ ἔπραξα.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus remarked that this nobleman asked this third slave why he had not put his money into a bank (καὶ διὰ τί οὐκ ἔδωκάς μου τὸ ἀργύριον ἐπὶ τράπεζαν), instead of wrapping it in a cloth.  Then, when he returned (κἀγὼ ἐλθὼν) from his trip, he would have at least collected it with interest (σὺν τόκῳ ἂν αὐτὸ ἔπραξα).  This is similar to Matthew, chapter 25:27, perhaps indicating a Q source.  Jesus, via Matthew, said that this master told his slave that had hid his talent in the ground, that he should have at a minimum invested his money with the bankers (ἔδει σε οὖν βαλεῖν τὰ ἀργύριά μου τοῖς τραπεζείταις).  Then, at least, when he returned (καὶ ἐλθὼν ἐγὼ ἐκομισάμην), he would have received his money plus the earned interest on it (ἐκομισάμην ἂν τὸ ἐμὸν σὺν τόκῳ).  This master was a demanding harsh slave owner.  The demands were very serious.  Do you trust banks and bankers?

The dialogue with the blind beggar (Lk 18:40-18:41)

“When he came near,

Jesus asked him.

‘What do you want me

To do for you?’

He said.

‘Lord!

Let me see again!’”

 

ἐγγίσαντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν

Τί σοι θέλεις ποιήσω; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Κύριε, ἵνα ἀναβλέψω.

 

Luke indicated that when the blind beggar came near to Jesus (ἐγγίσαντος δὲ αὐτοῦ), he asked him (ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν) what he wanted Jesus to do for him (Τί σοι θέλεις ποιήσω).  The blind beggar replied (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν), calling Jesus the Lord (Κύριε), that he wanted to see again (ἵνα ἀναβλέψω).  Both Mark, chapter 10:51, and Matthew, chapter 20:32-33, are similar.  Mark indicated that Jesus responded to Bartimaeus (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς).  He wanted to know what he wished that Jesus could do for him (εἶπεν Τί θέλεις ποιήσω).  The blind Bartimaeus replied to Jesus (ὁ δὲ τυφλὸς εἶπεν αὐτῷ) by addressing him as Rabbi or master teacher (Ῥαββουνεί).  He wanted to see again, to regain his sight (ἵνα ἀναβλέψω).  This did not seem that unusual.  Matthew said that Jesus called (ἐφώνησεν αὐτοὺς) the two blind men.  He wanted to know what they wanted him to do for them (καὶ εἶπεν Τί θέλετε ποιήσω ὑμῖν).  They then called Jesus Lord (λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Κύριε).  They wanted their eyes opened (ἵνα ἀνοιγῶσιν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἡμῶν) so that they could see.  In all three synoptics, the blind man or men wanted to see again, a simple request.  Do you want to see better?

What is going on? (Lk 18:36-18:36)

“When this beggar

Heard

A crowd going by,

He asked.

‘What was happening?’”

 

ἀκούσας δὲ ὄχλου διαπορευομένου ἐπυνθάνετο τί εἴη τοῦτο.

 

Luke uniquely indicated that this blind beggar heard (ἀκούσας) a crowd going by or passing through (δὲ ὄχλου διαπορευομένου).  He then inquired (ἐπυνθάνετο) what was going on (τί εἴη τοῦτο)?  Luke was the only one to have this beggar ask a question.  Matthew, chapter 20:30, has something similar, two blind men, instead of one, were sitting by the roadside (καὶ ἰδοὺ δύο τυφλοὶ καθήμενοι παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν), but they did not ask any questions as Jesus and the crowd went by them.  What do you do when you hear a noisy crowd?

Eternal life (Lk 18:18-18:18)

“A certain ruler

Asked Jesus.

‘Good Teacher!

What must I do

To inherit

Eternal life?’”

 

Καὶ ἐπηρώτησέν τις αὐτὸν ἄρχων λέγων Διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ, τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that a certain ruler questioned Jesus (Καὶ ἐπηρώτησέν τις αὐτὸν ἄρχων), calling him a good teacher (λέγων Διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ).  What did he have to do to inherit eternal life (τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω)?  This incident about the man asking about eternal life can be found in Mark, chapter 10:17, and Matthew, chapter 19:16, but slightly different.  Mark had Jesus setting out on a journey (Καὶ ἐκπορευομένου αὐτοῦ εἰς ὁδὸν), when a man, not a ruler as in Luke, came running up to Jesus (προσδραμὼν εἷς).  He knelt down before Jesus (καὶ γονυπετήσας αὐτὸν).  He then questioned Jesus (ἐπηρώτα αὐτόν), calling him a good teacher (Διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ), like in Luke.  He wanted to know what he had to do (τί ποιήσω) to inherit, possess, or acquire eternal life (ἵνα ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω).  Matthew said this person was not a ruler as in Luke, but he also came to Jesus (Καὶ ἰδοὺ εἷς προσελθὼν αὐτῷ).  He called Jesus a teacher (εἶπεν Διδάσκαλε), but not a good teacher as in Luke and Mark.  He wanted to know what one good deed he could do (τί ἀγαθὸν ποιήσω) to achieve eternal life (ἵνα σχῶ ζωὴν αἰώνιον).  This person wanted to know about his own personal eternal salvation, while the normal Jewish attitude would have been to talk about how they could all be saved.  Are you worried about your eternal life?

The eagles will be gathered (Lk 17:37-17:37)

“Then they asked Jesus.

‘Where?

Lord!’

He said to them,

‘Where the corpse is,

There the vultures

Will gather.’”

 

καὶ ἀποκριθέντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Ποῦ, Κύριε; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ὅπου τὸ σῶμα, ἐκεῖ καὶ οἱ ἀετοὶ ἐπισυναχθήσονται.

 

Luke indicated that they asked Jesus (καὶ ἀποκριθέντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ), addressing him as Lord (Κύριε), where was this going to happen (Ποῦ)?  Jesus said to them (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) that where the body or the corpse was (Ὅπου τὸ σῶμα), there the vultures would gather (ἐκεῖ καὶ οἱ ἀετοὶ ἐπισυναχθήσονται).  This was something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:28, perhaps indicating a Q source.  However, this saying was after the comment about the Son of Man coming like lightning.  Jesus, via Matthew, said that wherever the corpse was (ὅπου ἐὰν ᾖ τὸ πτῶμα), there the vultures would gather (ἐκεῖ συναχθήσονται οἱ ἀετοί).  The vultures or eagles were a reference to the Roman soldiers with their eagle symbols.  Thus, Luke ended the remarks of Jesus about the end times.  Are you comfortable talking about the end of the world?

The kingdom of God (Lk 17:20-17:20)

“Once,

Jesus

Was asked

By the Pharisees,

When the kingdom of God

Was coming?

He answered.

‘The kingdom of God

Is not coming

With observable signs.’”

 

Ἐπερωτηθεὶς δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Φαρισαίων πότε ἔρχεται ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς καὶ εἶπεν Οὐκ ἔρχεται ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ μετὰ παρατηρήσεως,

 

Luke uniquely indicated that the Pharisees questioned Jesus (Ἐπερωτηθεὶς δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Φαρισαίων) about when the kingdom of God was coming (πότε ἔρχεται ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ).  He answered them by saying (ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς καὶ εἶπεν) that the kingdom of God (ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ) was not coming with observable signs or careful watching (Οὐκ ἔρχεται…μετὰ παρατηρήσεως).  Once again, Luke used a Greek word παρατηρήσεως, meaning observation or careful watching, that was only found here and nowhere else in the Greek biblical literature.  Thus, no amount of careful watching or looking for signs would help them discover when the kingdom of God was coming.  This discussion between the Pharisees and Jesus about the meaning of the kingdom of God and when it was to come was, of course, of interest to the followers of Jesus also.  When do you think that the kingdom of God is coming?

What happened to other nine? (Lk 17:17-17:17)

“Then Jesus asked.

‘Were not ten

Made clean?

But the other nine,

Where are they?’”

 

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Οὐχ οἱ δέκα ἐκαθαρίσθησαν; οἱ δὲ ἐννέα ποῦ;

 

Only Luke has this story about the curing of the ten lepers.  Luke indicated that Jesus asked this one leper (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν), where the other 9 lepers were (οἱ δὲ ἐννέα ποῦ), since 10 were made clean (Οὐχ οἱ δέκα ἐκαθαρίσθησαν).  Luke remarked that Jesus wondered about the other 9 lepers.  How come only one, or 10%, of the 10 cured lepers showed up to give thanks?  Would you be the 10% or the 90%?