The kings of Persia (Dan 11:2-11:2)

“Now I will announce

The truth

To you.

Three more kings

Shall arise

In Persia.

The fourth shall be

Far richer

Than all of them.

When he has become strong,

Through his riches,

He shall stir up all

Against the kingdom of Greece.”

Next this angel Gabriel was going to tell Daniel the truth about 3 or 4 more Persian kings. This assumes that Cyrus the Great (559-530 BCE) was the king at that time. The 3 more are probably Cambyses II (530-522 BCE), Darius I (522-486 BCE), and Xerxes I (486-465 BCE), who all went to war with Greece. The 4th Persian ruler might have been Artaxerxes (465-424 BCE). Notice that most of these Persian rulers ruled for long periods of time with their biggest enemy being Greece.

The title of the decree for the extermination of the Jews (Greek text only)

“This is a copy of the letter. ‘The Great King, Artaxerxes, writes the following to the governors of the one hundred twenty-seven provinces from India to Ethiopia and to the officials under them.”

Once again, this appears only in the Greek text and not in the Hebrew text at all. The king is clearly writing to the 127 governors of the various provinces form India to Ethiopia, the great Persian Empire that had been established by King Cyrus the Great. King Cyrus had issued a decree to let the Jewish people return to Jerusalem as in 539 BCE as in Ezra, chapter 1. This would have been around the year 452 BCE, about a hundred years later about 8 years before the time of Nehemiah.