“But Jesus said to him.
Who appointed me
To be a judge
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἄνθρωπε, τίς με κατέστησεν κριτὴν ἢ μεριστὴν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς;
Luke uniquely continued this episode with a response from Jesus. Luke indicated that Jesus responded by calling him “man” (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἄνθρωπε). Jesus said. “Who appointed me to be a judge or arbitrator over you (τίς με κατέστησεν κριτὴν ἢ μεριστὴν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς)?” This is the only time that the word μεριστὴν was used in the biblical literature, meaning someone who divided, partitioned, or arbitrated things. Luke indicated that Jesus did not want to get involved in these family disputes, as he did not want to judge this family. However, this did become an occasion for Jesus to talk about wealth. Is it good to have wealthy parents?
“Jesus said to them.
‘The harvest is plentiful.
But the laborers
Pray earnestly to
The Lord of the harvest
To send out
Into his harvest.’”
ἔλεγεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Ὁ μὲν θερισμὸς πολύς, οἱ δὲ ἐργάται ὀλίγοι· δεήθητε οὖν τοῦ Κυρίου τοῦ θερισμοῦ ὅπως ἐργάτας ἐκβάλῃ εἰς τὸν θερισμὸν αὐτοῦ.
Luke indicated that Jesus said to these 70 disciples (ἔλεγεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς) that the harvest was plentiful (Ὁ μὲν θερισμὸς πολύς), but the work men or laborers were few (οἱ δὲ ἐργάται ὀλίγοι). Therefore, they should pray earnestly to the Lord of the harvest (δεήθητε οὖν τοῦ Κυρίου τοῦ θερισμοῦ) to send out more laborers or work men into his harvest (ὅπως ἐργάτας ἐκβάλῃ εἰς τὸν θερισμὸν αὐτοῦ). This saying about the laborers for the harvest is nearly the same, as in Matthew, chapter 9:37-38, indicating a probable Q source. However, there Jesus spoke to his disciples, right before he appointed and commissioned his 12 apostles. He told them that the harvest was plentiful, but there were few field laborers. He wanted them to request or pray to the Lord of the harvest to send out more field laborers into his harvest field. The Father is the Lord of the harvest. Are you willing to work for the Lord of the harvest?
Appointed seventy others.
He sent them
On ahead of him,
Into every town
Where he himself
Intended to go.”
Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἀνέδειξεν ὁ Κύριος ἑτέρους ἑβδομήκοντα, καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς ἀνὰ δύο πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ εἰς πᾶσαν πόλιν καὶ τόπον οὗ ἤμελλεν αὐτὸς ἔρχεσθαι.
Luke uniquely spoke about these 70 disciples. He said that after these comments (Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα) about the demands of discipleship, the Lord (ὁ Κύριος), not Jesus, appointed 70 others disciples (ἀνέδειξεν ἑτέρους ἑβδομήκοντα), who were not the 12 apostles. He sent them on ahead of him or his face (πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ), in pairs (καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς ἀνὰ δύο), into every town and place (εἰς πᾶσαν πόλιν καὶ τόπον) where he himself intended to go (οὗ ἤμελλεν αὐτὸς ἔρχεσθαι). They were to be his front men or advance people. There was no mention of these 70 disciples in the other gospel stories, only here in Luke. This group of 70 was reminiscent of the elders with Moses in Numbers, chapter 11:24-25, where Moses gathered the 70 elders of the people around the tent. Then Yahweh took some of the Spirit that was upon him and put it upon the 70 elders. These elders temporarily prophesied. This sharing of power may have helped Moses, since God gave some of the power of his spirit to these 70 elders. Thus, the Jerusalem Jewish Sanhedrin had 70 members. These 70 missionaries of Jesus went out in pairs, two by two, a common practice in the early Church. Mark, chapter 6:7, said that Jesus sent out his 12 apostles in pairs, two by two, also. Interesting enough, the activities of these 70 missionaries seem to be much like the 12 apostles as described earlier in chapter 9:2-4. Have you ever been on a missionary expedition?
“The son of Joanan,
The son of Rhesa,
The son of Zerubbabel,
The son of Shealtiel,
The son of Neri.”
τοῦ Ἰωανὰν τοῦ Ῥησὰ τοῦ Ζοροβάβελ τοῦ Σαλαθιὴλ τοῦ Νηρεὶ
Finally, we find 2 common names from Matthew, chapter 1:12, when he was describing people during the Babylonian captivity. Here Matthew and Luke have an agreement on 2 people, Zerubbabel and Shealtiel. These 2 individuals can be found in 1 Chronicles, chapter 3:10-20, after the Israelites from Judah and Jerusalem were deported to Babylon, Jechoniah became the father of Salathiel (Σαλαθιήλ). Jechoniah was the son of King Jehoiakim and grandson of King Josiah who had ruled Judah in 598 BCE. Jechoniah was exiled for 37 years as indicated in 2 Kings, chapter 25. Salathiel or Shealtiel was his oldest son, but he had at least 5 other brothers. According to 1 Chronicles, Salathiel had no children, so that his brother Pedaiah was the father of Zerubbabel (Ζοροβαβέλ), not him. Zerubbabel was the leader of the tribe of Judah at the time of their return from captivity, as his name appears over 25 times in the scriptural writings. The Persian king appointed Zerubbabel the governor of Judah, where he rebuilt the Jerusalem Temple. He also had a Persian name of Sheshbazzar as described in 1 Esdras, chapters 1-3. Here Luke said, without any comment, that the son of Joanan (τοῦ Ἰωανὰν), the son of Rhesa (τοῦ Ῥησὰ), the son of Zerubbabel (τοῦ Ζοροβάβελ), the son of Shealtiel (τοῦ Σαλαθιὴλ), the son of Neri (τοῦ Νηρεὶ).
There was Simon
Whom he named Peter.”
καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς δώδεκα, καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρον·
This section about the names of the 12 apostles is similar to Mathew, chapter 10:2-4 and Luke, chapter 6:13-16. This list can also be compared to the list in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1:13. Mark said that Jesus appointed these 12 disciples as apostles (καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς δώδεκα). First of all, there was Simon, known as Peter (καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρον). Mark indicated that Simon’s name of Peter came from Jesus. It is interesting that his brother Andrew was not listed here as in in the other listings in Matthew and Luke, since his calling was linked with his brother Simon in Mark, chapter 1:16-17. Instead, he was listed with the other apostles later. Why did Andrew not make the cut with his brother Simon here?
“After the deportation to Babylon,
The father of Salathiel.
The father of Zerubbabel.”
Μετὰ δὲ τὴν μετοικεσίαν Βαβυλῶνος Ἰεχονίας ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σαλαθιήλ, Σαλαθιὴλ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ζοροβαβέλ,
Based on the text in 1 Chronicles, chapter 3, after the Israelites from Judah and Jerusalem were deported to Babylon (Μετὰ δὲ τὴν μετοικεσίαν Βαβυλῶνος), Jechoniah (Ἰεχονίας) became the father of Salathiel (Σαλαθιήλ). Jechoniah was the son of King Jehoiakim and grandson of King Josiah who had ruled Judah in 598 BCE. Jechoniah was exiled for 37 years as indicated in 2 Kings, chapter 25. Salathiel or Shealtiel was his oldest son, but he had at least 5 other brothers. According to 1 Chronicles, Salathiel had no children, so that his brother Pedaiah was the father of Zerubbabel (Ζοροβαβέλ), not him. Zerubbabel was the leader of the tribe of Judah at the time of their return from captivity, as his name appears over 25 times in the scriptural writings. The Persian king appointed Zerubbabel the governor of Judah, where he rebuilt the Jerusalem Temple. He also had a Persian name of Sheshbazzar as described in 1 Esdras, chapters 1-3. This Greek text used the term “begat” (ἐγέννησεν) to represent the relationships between these men. However, it seems perfectly acceptable to simply call them the father instead of saying “fathered them.”