The little horn grew strong (Dan 8:9-8:10)

“Out of one of them

Came another horn,

A little one.

It grew exceedingly great,

Toward the south,

Toward the east,

Toward the beautiful land.

It grew as high,

As the host

Of heaven.

It threw down

To earth

Some of the host,

Some of the stars.

It cast them down

To the ground.

It trampled on them.”

Once again, the little horn is the big problem, as in the last vision. This little horn is a reference to a member of the Seleucids branch, Antiochus IV Epiphanes. This little horn grew great towards the south, the east, and into the beautiful land, the land of Israel. This little horn also grew tall to the heavens. It threw down some of the hosts of heaven and the stars of the sky. It cast them down to the ground and trampled on them.

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The concern of Daniel about food defilement (Dan 1:8-1:8)

“But Daniel resolved

That he would not

Defile himself

With the royal rations

Of food,

Or wine.

Thus,

He asked

The palace master

To allow him

Not to defile himself.”

Daniel resolved that he would not eat the royal food or wine, since that would make him unclean. He then asked Ashpenaz, the chief of the palace not to eat this royal food. The food restrictions became a major issue in the 2nd century BCE, when Antiochus IV Epiphanes (174-164 BCE) was the Greek Seleucid king who persecuted the Jews of Samaria and Judah. King Antiochus sided with the Hellenized Jews that led to the Maccabean revolt over the issue of who was a true Jewish person. The answer could be found by observing the food that they ate.