Great distress (Lk 21:23-21:23)

“Woe to those

Who are pregnant!

Woe to those

Who are nursing infants!

In those days,

There will be

Great distress

On the earth.

There will be

Wrath against this people.”

 

οὐαὶ ταῖς ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσαις καὶ ταῖς θηλαζούσαις ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις· ἔσται γὰρ ἀνάγκη μεγάλη ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ὀργὴ τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ,

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said woe to those who would be pregnant (οὐαὶ ταῖς ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσαις) or nursing infants (καὶ ταῖς θηλαζούσαις) in those days (ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις).  There would be a great distress (ἔσται γὰρ ἀνάγκη μεγάλη) on the earth (ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς), as there would be wrath or anger against this people (καὶ ὀργὴ τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ).  This is the same, almost word for word, in Mark, chapter 13:17, and Matthew, chapter 24:19.  All three synoptic gospels have the same wording for this curse.  According to Mark, the cursed ones (οὐαὶ δὲ) would be those women who were pregnant with a baby in their womb (ταῖς ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσαις) or those women nursing infants (καὶ ταῖς θηλαζούσαις) in those days (ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις), during the end times.  Matthew indicated that Jesus said that the cursed ones (οὐαὶ δὲ) would be those women who were pregnant with a baby in their womb (ταῖς ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσαις) or those women nursing infants (καὶ ταῖς θηλαζούσαις) during the end times, in those days (ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις).  There would be no earthly future for their infants.  However, Mark and Matthew did not mention anything about great distress or anger, but it might be assumed.  Luke, on the other hand, did not mention like Mark chapter 13:18, and Matthew, chapter 24:20, that it would be better if this was not in the winter time or on the Sabbath.  Is it a distressful time for women who are pregnant or nursing?

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You will weep! (Lk 13:28-13:28)

“There will be

Weeping

And gnashing

Of teeth,

When you see

Abraham,

Isaac,

And Jacob,

With all the prophets,

In the kingdom of God.

However,

You yourselves

Will be thrown out.”

 

ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων, ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακὼβ καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὑμᾶς δὲ ἐκβαλλομένους ἔξω.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that there would be weeping (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς) and gnashing or grinding of teeth (καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων), when they would see (ὅταν ὄψησθε) Abraham (Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ), with all the prophets (καὶ πάντας τοὺς προφήτας) in the kingdom of God (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ).  However, they would be thrown out (ὑμᾶς δὲ ἐκβαλλομένους ἔξω).  This saying about the failure of the sons of Abraham is similar to Matthew, chapter 8:11-12, perhaps a Q source with its anti-Jewish bias.  Matthew had this saying of Jesus begin with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν).  Many people would come from the east and the west (ὅτι πολλοὶ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν ἥξουσιν) to recline at table (καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται) during the Messianic feast with the 3 great Hebrew Jewish leaders, Abraham (μετὰ Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ) in the kingdom of heaven (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν).  However, the sons or the heirs of the kingdom (οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας) would be thrown out into the outer darkness (ἐκβληθήσονται εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον), where there would be weeping, crying, or lamenting (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς) with the gnashing or grinding of teeth (καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων).  These were the traditional ways or signs to show anger and frustration.  In this a reference to the end times damnation?  Have you ever been angry or frustrated?

Why waist the ointment? (Mk 14:4-14:4)

“But some were there

Who said to one another

In anger.

‘Why was the ointment

Wasted

In this way?’”

 

ἦσαν δέ τινες ἀγανακτοῦντες πρὸς ἑαυτούς Εἰς τί ἡ ἀπώλεια αὕτη τοῦ μύρου γέγονεν;

 

This is similar to Matthew, chapter 26:8, and somewhat similar to John, chapter 12:4-6, where it was Judas Iscariot who complained about wasting money as John made more derogatory remarks about Judas.  Mark said that some unnamed angry, incensed, or indignant disciples (ἦσαν δέ τινες ἀγανακτοῦντες) said to one another (πρὸς ἑαυτούς) why was this precious oil ointment wasted this way (Εἰς τί ἡ ἀπώλεια αὕτη τοῦ μύρου γέγονεν)?  They considered this a waste of good precious oil.

Jesus heals his hand (Mk 3:5-3:5)

“Jesus looked around

At them

With anger.

He was grieved

At their hardness of heart.

He said to the man.

‘Stretch out your hand!’

He stretched it out.

His hand was restored.”

 

καὶ περιβλεψάμενος αὐτοὺς μετ’ ὀργῆς, συνλυπούμενος ἐπὶ τῇ πωρώσει τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν, λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ Ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρα. καὶ ἐξέτεινεν, καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ.

 

Matthew, chapter 12:13, and Luke, chapter 6:10, have something similar where Jesus cured the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath.  Thus, Mark may have been the source of this healing story.  He said that Jesus looked around him with anger (καὶ περιβλεψάμενος αὐτοὺς μετ’ ὀργῆς).  He was upset or grieved at the hardness of their hearts (συνλυπούμενος ἐπὶ τῇ πωρώσει τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν).  Finally, after this discussion about the Sabbath, Jesus said to the man with the withered hand (λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ) to stretch out his hand (Ἔκτεινόν τὴν χεῖρα).  He then stretched out or extended his hand (καὶ ἐξέτεινεν).  It was restored like new (καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ).  After all this discussion, Jesus healed the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath without doing any physical activity.

 

The unforgiving slave was tortured (Mt 18:32-18:34)

“Then his lord

Summoned him.

He said to him.

‘You wicked slave!

I forgave you

All that debt

Because you pleaded with me.

Should not you

Have had mercy

On your fellow slave,

As I had mercy on you?’

In anger,

His lord handed him over

To be tortured

Until he would pay

His entire debt.”

 

τότε προσκαλεσάμενος αὐτὸν ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ λέγει αὐτῷ Δοῦλε πονηρέ, πᾶσαν τὴν ὀφειλὴν ἐκείνην ἀφῆκά σοι, ἐπεὶ παρεκάλεσάς με·

οὐκ ἔδει καὶ σὲ ἐλεῆσαι τὸν σύνδουλόν σου, ὡς κἀγὼ σὲ ἠλέησα;

καὶ ὀργισθεὶς ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ παρέδωκεν αὐτὸν τοῖς βασανισταῖς ἕως οὗ ἀποδῷ πᾶν τὸ ὀφειλόμενον αὐτῷ.

 

This parable about the unforgiving servant slave is unique to Matthew.  This forgiving lord king summoned his unforgiving slave (τότε προσκαλεσάμενος αὐτὸν ὁ κύριος).  He called him a wicked or evil slave (αὐτοῦ λέγει αὐτῷ Δοῦλε πονηρέ).  The king reminded him that he had forgiven all his debt (πᾶσαν τὴν ὀφειλὴν ἐκείνην ἀφῆκά σοι) because he had begged or pleaded with him (ἐπεὶ παρεκάλεσάς με).  Why did he not show the same mercy to his fellow slave that he had shown to him (οὐκ ἔδει καὶ σὲ ἐλεῆσαι τὸν σύνδουλόν σου, ὡς κἀγὼ σὲ ἠλέησα)?  Then the angry king and lord ordered him handed him over to a torturing jailer (καὶ ὀργισθεὶς ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ παρέδωκεν αὐτὸν τοῖς βασανισταῖς) until he would pay off his entire debt (ἕως οὗ ἀποδῷ πᾶν τὸ ὀφειλόμενον αὐτῷ).  He could never pay off his enormous debt, so that he would be tortured every day of his life instead of originally being sold with all his possessions, as was the original punishment.  He just had too much debt.  With a little mercy, he would have been okay.

The failure of the sons of Abraham (Mt 8:11-8:12)

“I tell you!

‘Many will come

From the east,

From the west.

They will recline at table

With Abraham,

With Isaac,

With Jacob,

In the kingdom of heaven.

However,

The heirs of the kingdom

Will be thrown

Into the outer darkness.

There will be weeping

As well as gnashing of teeth.’”

 

λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ὅτι πολλοὶ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν ἥξουσιν καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται μετὰ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακὼβ ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν·

οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας ἐκβληθήσονται εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον· ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων.

 

This saying about the failure of the sons of Abraham is not in the similar account in Luke, chapter 7, since this is unique to Matthew, and thus, showed his anti-Jewish bias.  This little saying began as a solemn pronouncement of Jesus (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν).  Many people would come from the east and the west (ὅτι πολλοὶ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν ἥξουσιν) to recline at table (καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται) during the Messianic feast with the 3 great Hebrew Jewish leaders, Abraham (μετὰ Ἀβραὰμ), Isaac (καὶ Ἰσαὰκ), and Jacob (καὶ Ἰακὼβ) in the kingdom of the heavens (ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν).  Only Matthew used this word “ἀνακλιθήσονται,” to recline at table.  However, the sons or the heirs of the kingdom (οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας) will be thrown out into the outer darkness (ἐκβληθήσονται εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον), where there would be weeping, crying, or lamenting (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς) with the gnashing of teeth (καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων).  In this reference to the end times damnation, these were the traditional ways or signs to show anger and frustration.

Disaster for their ancestors (Zech 8:14-8:14)

“Thus says Yahweh of hosts.

‘Just as I purposed

To bring disaster upon you,

When your ancestors

Provoked me to wrath,

I did not relent.’”

Yahweh wanted to send disaster upon the present-day inhabitants of Jerusalem, because their ancestors had provoked him to anger.  Then he did not stop, because of their evil deeds.