‘The Lord needs it.’”
οἱ δὲ εἶπαν ὅτι Ὁ Κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει.
Luke indicated that their response (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν) was simple and precise. “The Lord needs it (Ὁ Κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει).” Was this some sort of secret password to show who they were? This is similar to Mark, chapter 11:6, where Mark said that the response of these two disciples was what they had been prepared to say. They told these bystanders (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτοῖς) what Jesus had told them to say (καθὼς εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς). Thus, these people in this town allowed these unnamed disciples to take the colt with them (καὶ ἀφῆκαν αὐτούς). Mission accomplished! How would these bystanders know about the master?
“Would you not rather say
Put on your apron!
While I eat
You shall eat
ἀλλ’ οὐχὶ ἐρεῖ αὐτῷ Ἑτοίμασον τί δειπνήσω, καὶ περιζωσάμενος διακόνει μοι ἕως φάγω καὶ πίω, καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα φάγεσαι καὶ πίεσαι σύ;
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that they would say to their slave (ἀλλ’ οὐχὶ ἐρεῖ αὐτῷ), who was returning from the field, that he should prepare the supper for him (Ἑτοίμασον τί δειπνήσω). Instead, this land owner would tell the slave to put on his apron or gird himself (καὶ περιζωσάμενος), so that this slave might serve him (διακόνει μοι), while he ate and drank (ἕως φάγω καὶ πίω). Then later after all this had been taken care when the owner had eaten and drank (καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα), then the slave would be allowed to eat and drink (φάγεσαι καὶ πίεσαι σύ). There clearly was a caste system. The slaves did not eat with their land owners. They would have to serve their master, before they could eat their own food. What do you think about this kind of system?
“Anyone who divorces
And marries another,
From her husband,
Πᾶς ὁ ἀπολύων τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ καὶ γαμῶν ἑτέραν μοιχεύει, καὶ ὁ ἀπολελυμένην ἀπὸ ἀνδρὸς γαμῶν μοιχεύει.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that anyone who put away or divorced his wife (Πᾶς ὁ ἀπολύων τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ), and married another woman (καὶ γαμῶν ἑτέραν), committed adultery (μοιχεύει). Whoever married (γαμῶν) a woman, divorced from her husband (καὶ ὁ ἀπολελυμένην ἀπὸ ἀνδρὸς), committed adultery (μοιχεύει). This response of Jesus to his disciples can be found also in Matthew, chapter 19:9, where there was also an emphasis on divorce as adultery. Mark, chapter 10:11-12 indicated that Jesus said to his disciples (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς) that whoever divorced his wife (Ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ) and married another woman (καὶ γαμήσῃ ἄλλην), committed adultery against her (μοιχᾶται ἐπ’ αὐτήν). Jesus had taken the stronger stance of no divorce. There was no exception about sexual misconduct as in Matthew. In Jewish society, women could not divorce their husbands, but in Roman society or among the gentiles, women could divorce their husbands. Mark indicated that Jesus gave the same rebuke to the women as he given to the men. If a woman divorced her husband (καὶ ἐὰν αὐτὴ ἀπολύσασα τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτῆς), and married someone else (γαμήσῃ ἄλλον), she committed adultery (μοιχᾶται). There were no exceptions, not even for spousal abuse. The new marriage was adulterous. In Matthew, Jesus responded to the Pharisees (λέγει αὐτοῖς). He said that Moses allowed them to divorce their wives (Ὅτι Μωϋσῆς …ἐπέτρεψεν ὑμῖν ἀπολῦσαι τὰς γυναῖκας ὑμῶν) because they were so hard-hearted, perverse, and obstinate (πρὸς τὴν σκληροκαρδίαν ὑμῶν). However, as he had noted earlier, this was not so from the beginning (ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς δὲ οὐ γέγονεν οὕτως). Then in a solemn proclamation (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν) he said that whoever divorced his wife and married another woman committed adultery (ὅτι ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ…καὶ γαμήσῃ ἄλλην, μοιχᾶται), except for the sexual immorality or fornication (μὴ ἐπὶ πορνείᾳ) of his wife. Jesus had taken the stronger stance of no divorce, but gave one exception, the sexual misconduct of the wife, much like some of the stricter Jewish rabbis at that time. This exception was not in Mark or here in Luke. Do you think that there should be exceptions for divorce?
To another person.
But this person said.
First let me go
Bury my father!’”
Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς ἕτερον Ἀκολούθει μοι. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν, Κύριε, Ἐπίτρεψόν μοι πρῶτον ἀπελθόντι θάψαι τὸν πατέρα μου.
Luke indicated that Jesus said to another person (Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς ἕτερον) to follow him (Ἀκολούθει μοι). However, this person responded (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν) to Jesus by calling him “Lord (Κύριε)”. He wanted to be allowed to first go away (Ἐπίτρεψόν μοι πρῶτον ἀπελθόντι) and bury his father (θάψαι τὸν πατέρα μου). This saying of Jesus is almost the same in Matthew, chapter 8:21, indicating a possible Q source. Once again, this is a harsh saying about the discipleship of Jesus. Matthew said that another follower of Jesus said to him, calling him the “Lord” (Κύριε) that he wanted to bury his father first, as it was the Jewish custom and an important Jewish responsibility to bury people within 7 days. How important was burying your father to you?
“Then the demons
Of the man.
The swine herd
The steep bank
Into the lake.
They were drowned.”
ἐξελθόντα δὲ τὰ δαιμόνια ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰσῆλθον εἰς τοὺς χοίρους, καὶ ὥρμησεν ἡ ἀγέλη κατὰ τοῦ κρημνοῦ εἰς τὴν λίμνην καὶ ἀπεπνίγη.
Luke said that the demons came out of that man (ἐξελθόντα δὲ τὰ δαιμόνια ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου). They entered the pigs (εἰσῆλθον εἰς τοὺς χοίρους). The whole swine herd rushed down the steep bank (καὶ ὥρμησεν ἡ ἀγέλη κατὰ τοῦ κρημνοῦ) into the lake (εἰς τὴν λίμνην), where they drowned (καὶ ἀπεπνίγη). All three synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 8:32, Mark, chapter 5:13, and Luke here, have Jesus cast out the demons into the nearby herd of pigs, with slight nuances in each story. Mark said that Jesus allowed these evil spirits to have what they wanted. However, Jesus showed his power. The unclean spirit demons left the demoniac and entered the herd of pigs. This herd then rushed down a steep bank into the sea. Mark was the only synoptic to mention the number of pigs, 2,000, who were drowned or died in the sea. Matthew said that Jesus then accommodated these evil spirits. He told them to leave the 2 humans and go into the swine or pigs, which the demons did. They entered the herd of pigs, but this herd then rushed down a steep bank into the sea, where they died in the water. There is one problem, pigs can swim, so some might have survived. Perhaps the unfamiliarity of these Jewish authors with pigs may have led to this harsh ending. Anyway, the pig herd, without a particular size or 2,000 of them as mentioned by Mark, with the unclean spirits, ran into the sea off a steep bank and perished. Have you ever seen anyone or any animal drown?
“Jesus was told.
And your brothers
Are standing outside,
Wanting to see you.’”
ἀπηγγέλη δὲ αὐτῷ Ἡ μήτηρ σου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί σου ἑστήκασιν ἔξω ἰδεῖν θέλοντές σε.
Luke indicated that Jesus was told (ἀπηγγέλη δὲ αὐτῷ) that his mother (Ἡ μήτηρ σου) and his brothers (καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί σου) were standing outside (ἑστήκασιν ἔξω), wanting to see him (ἰδεῖν θέλοντές σε). Mark, chapter 3:32, and Matthew, chapter 12:47, have something similar, almost word for word, so that Mark might be the source of this saying. Mark indicated that someone from the crowd sitting around Jesus said that he should look because his mother, his brothers, and his sisters were outside wanting to talk to him. Matthew and Luke never mentioned anything about his sisters, only his brothers, who were all unnamed. Matthew said that his relatives sent for Jesus, as someone told him that his mother and brothers were outside wanting to talk to him. Were they not allowed to come into where he was talking? Would you stop what you were doing to talk to your close family members?
And the Pharisees
Whether he would cure
On the Sabbath.
They might find
παρετηροῦντο δὲ αὐτὸν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι εἰ ἐν τῷ σαββάτῳ θεραπεύει, ἵνα εὕρωσιν κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ.
Luke said that the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the Pharisees (καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) were watching or closely observing Jesus (παρετηροῦντο δὲ αὐτὸν) to see whether he would cure or heal (θεραπεύει) this man’s hand on the Sabbath (εἰ ἐν τῷ σαββάτῳ). Thus, they might find an accusation against him (ἵνα εὕρωσιν κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ). Matthew, chapter 12:10, and Mark, chapter 3:2, are similar to this incident in Luke. However, Matthew had the Pharisees confront Jesus with a question, while Luke followed Mark in saying that the Scribes and Pharisees were merely watching to see if Jesus would cure this man with the withered hand on the Sabbath. Matthew said specifically that the Pharisees interrogated Jesus whether it was lawful to heal, cure, or serve anyone on the Sabbath. They were trying to see if they could accuse Jesus of breaking the Sabbath. Jewish law allowed people to help in cases of distress on the Sabbath. Clearly, this was a trap question.
Did not agree.
Some stood up.
πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἴσαι αἱ μαρτυρίαι οὐκ ἦσαν.
καί τινες ἀναστάντες ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ λέγοντες
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 14:60. However, this emphasis on witnesses and testimony was not in Luke, chapter 22, and John, chapter 18. Mark said that many people gave false testimony against Jesus (πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ). Their testimonies did not agree (καὶ ἴσαι αἱ μαρτυρίαι οὐκ ἦσαν). Some people stood up (καί τινες ἀναστάντες) and gave these false testimonies against Jesus (ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ λέγοντες). There is almost a redundancy in these remarks. According to Jewish law in Deuteronomy, chapters 17:6 and 19:15, it took 2 witnesses to convict anyone. This gathering sounds more like a trial than an informal meeting. Not only were they seeking pseudo or false witnesses, the whole council meeting may have been illegal, since they were not allowed to meet during the festivals, including Passover. This council included the elders or presbyters and the Scribes of Jerusalem, along with the priests and the high priests. However, the dreaded Pharisees and Sadducees were not part of this council meeting.
“They told them
What Jesus had said.
They allowed them
To take it.”
οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτοῖς καθὼς εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς· καὶ ἀφῆκαν αὐτούς.
This is similar to Luke, chapter 19:34. Mark said that the response of these 2 disciples was what they had been prepared to say. They told them (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτοῖς) what Jesus had told them to say (καθὼς εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς). Thus, these people in this town allowed these unnamed disciples to take the colt with them (καὶ ἀφῆκαν αὐτούς). Mission accomplished!
οἱ δὲ εἶπαν· Ἐπέτρεψεν Μωϋσῆς βιβλίον ἀποστασίου γράψαι καὶ ἀπολῦσαι.
This answer of the Pharisees about Moses and divorce can also be found in Matthew, chapter 19:7, with some minor changes. The Pharisees are here responding to the question of Jesus, rather than the other way around, as in Matthew. Mark indicated that the Pharisees said (οἱ δὲ εἶπαν) that Moses allowed a man to write a certificate of divorce or dismissal (Ἐπέτρεψεν Μωϋσῆς βιβλίον ἀποστασίου γράψαι). Thus, the man could then divorce her or send her away (καὶ ἀπολῦσαι). The reference to Moses is from Deuteronomy, chapter 24:1-4, where there was talk about a certificate of divorce, and the possibility of many marriages. This certificate was called in Hebrew a “get.” Clearly divorce for a man was okay. However, after the second marriage there was a defilement.